Vocabulary

Civil
Vocabulary


English Word English Meaning
EnglishWord EnglishMeaning
Stress When a body is acted upon by a force, the internal force which is transmitted through the body is known as stress
Shear stress The stress induced in a body, when subjected to two equal &opposite forces which are acting tangentially across the resisting section as a result of which the body tends to shear off across the section is known as shear stress
Tensile stress The stress induced in a body, when subjected to two equal & opposite pulls, which result the increase in length, is known as tensile stress.
Compressive stress The stress induced in a body, when subjected to two equal & opposite pushes, which result the increase in length, is known as compressive stress.
Thermal stresses Thermal stresses are the stresses induced in a body due to change in temperature.
Principal stresses The normal stress, acting on a principal plane, are known as principal stresses.
Hoop stress the stress acting along the circumference of the cylinder is called circumferential stress
Longitudinal stress the stress acting along the length of the cylinder i.e. in the longitudinal direction is known as longitudinal stress
Crushing stress The stress corresponding to crushing load is called crushing stress
Bond stress The shear force acing per unit surface are of the bar, in the direction of force is known as bond stress
Strain When a body is subjected to some external force, there is some change of dimension of the body. The ratio of change of dimension of the body to the original dimension is known as strain
Tensile strain If there is some increase in length of a body due to external force, then the ratio of increase of length of the body is known as tensile strain
Compressive strain If there is some decrease in length of the body, then the ratio of decrease of the length of the body to the original length is known as compressive strain.
Shear strain The ration of change of volume of the body to the original volume is known as volumetric strain. The strain produced by shear stress is known as shear strain
Lateral strain The strain at right angles to the direction of applied load is known as lateral strain.
Longitudinal strain When a body is subjected to an axial tensile compressive load, there is an axial deformation in length of the body.The ratio of axial deformation the original length of the body is known as Longitudinal strain.
Volumetric strain The ratio of change in volume to the original volume of a body (when the body is subjected to a single force or a system of forces) is called volumetric strain.
Simply supported Describes a beam which rests on a support at each end, that is, it is not supported at more than two points, is not held rigidly by the supports, and does not form part of a larger framework.
Spring spring are the elastic bodies which absorb energy due to resilience
Beam A horizontal member that carries vertical loads along its length.
Truss An arrangement of steel or timber components designed to span across a large distance to support a roof, floor or bridge.
Foundation The part of a building or structure which transmits loads to the soil.
Frame Frame structures are the structures having the combination of beam, column and slab to resist the lateral and gravity loads / A frame may be defined as a structure, made up of several bars, riveted or welded together
Cantilever Overhanging beam, roof or floor.
Arch A basic form of masonry construction dating back millennia. Brick arches are found spanning over window and door openings in Victorian and older buildings
Cleat A steel plate or angle with holes for bolting, for connecting the components of a steel frame together.
Cantilever trusses A truss, which is connected to a wall or a column at one end, and free at the other is known as a cantilever truss
Cantilever beam A beam which is fixed at one end and free at the other end, is known as cantilever beam.
Simply supported beam A beam supported or resting freely on the supports at its both ends, is known as simply supported beam.
Overhanging beam If the end portion of a beam is extended beyond the support, such beam is known as overhanging beam.
Fixed beams A beam whose both ends are fixed or built-in walls, is knows as fixed beam.
Continuous beam A beam which is provided more than two supports as known as continuous beam.
Propped cantilever beam A propped cantilever beam is a cantilever beam which is propped either at the free end or at some intermediate point.
Retaining walls The walls which are used for retaining the soil or earth, are known as retaining walls.
Column Column or strut is defined as a member of a structure, which is subjected to axial compressive load. If the member of the structure is vertical & both of its ends are fixed rigidly while subjected to axial compressive load, the member is known as column
Long column When length of column is more as compared to its cross-sectional dimension, it is called long column
Short column When length of column is less as compared to its cross-sectional dimension. It is called short column
Arch Its curved beam (usually in vertical plane) that transfer loads to their plane towards support
Hanging wall The block which lies on the upper surface of the fault (through it may be lying at a lower elevation than the other block) is termed hanging wall.
Foot wall The block which lies on the underside of fault plane is termed foot wall.
Combined footing A footing that supports two or more columns is called combined footing
Flat slabs When slab is directly supported on columns, without beams, it is known as flat slab
Grid slabs When slab is supported on beams with columns only on the periphery of the hall, the slab is called grid slab
Truss A truss or an articulated structure is composed of links or straight bars assumed to be connected by frictionless pins at the joints
Frame A frame is a structure composed of links or straight bars connected at their ends by rigid joints
Grid A grid is a plane structure composed of continuous members that either intersect or cross each other. All members of a grid, generally lie in one plane
Tied columns When lateral ties are provided as transverse reinforcement in column, they are called tied columns
Spiral column When longitudinal bars are covered laterally by a wire in the form of helix or spiral, such type of column is called spiral column
Composite column When columns are provided with structural steel section like H-section, steel tube, etc. in place of longitudinal reinforcement it is called composite column
Short column A column which is so short that if overloaded it will fail not by crippling but by crushing
Slab A flat, usually horizontal cast concrete member of uniform thickness which extends over three or more supports in a given direction
Spread footing A footing used to support a single column. This is also known as an individual column footing and isolated footing
Strand A number of steel wires grouped together by twisting
RC frame The framework of a multi-story building consists of a number of a beams & columns built monolithically, formatting a framework. The system comprising of RC columns & connecting beams is called RC frame
Moment of inertia It is a geometrical property of an area which reflects how its points are distributed with regard to an arbitrary axis
Shear The force which tends to make the top and bottom flanges or fibers of a beam move parallel to one another.
Point of contraflexure In a bending beam, a point is known as a point of contra flexure if it is a location at which no bending occurs. In a bending moment diagram, it is the point at which the bending moment curve intersects with the zero line. In other words where the bending moment changes its sign from negative to positive or vice versa
Elasticity Elasticity is the property by virtue of which certain materials return back to their original position after the removal of the external force
Modulus of elasticity When material is loaded within elastic limit, the stress is proportional to the strain produced by the stress. This means the ratio of the stress to the corresponding strain is a constant within the elastic limit. This constant is known as modulus of elasticity.
Modulus of rigidity The ratio of shear stress to the corresponding shear strain within the elastic limit, is known as modulus of rigidity or shear modulus
Poisson’s ratio The ratio of lateral strain to the longitude strain is a constant for a given material, when the material is stressed within the elastic limit. The ratio is called Poisson’s ratio.
Bulk modules When a body is subjected to the mutually perpendicular like and equal direct stresses, the ratio of direct stress to the corresponding volumetric strain is found to be constant for a given material when a deformation is within a certain limit. This ratio is known as bulk modules.
Resilience The total strain energy stored in body is commonly known as resilience.
Proof resilience The maximum strain energy, stored in a body is commonly known as Proof Resilience.
Modulus of Resilience It is defined as the proof resilience of a material per unit volume.
Moment of resistance Due to pure bending, the layers above the N.A. are subjected to compressive stresses whereas the layers below the N.A. are subjected to tensile stresses. Due to these stresses the forces will be acting on the layers. These sources will have moment about the N.A. The total moment of these forces about the N.A. for a section is known as moment of resistance of that section.
Section modules Section modules is defined as the ratio of moment of inertia of a section about the neutral axis to the distance of the outermost layer from the neutral axis.
Eccentricity The horizontal distance between the longitudinal axis of column and line of action of load is known as an eccentricity.
Angle of repose The maximum inclination of a plane at which a body remains in equilibrium over the inclined plane by the assistance of friction only
Polar moment of inertia the moment of inertia of a plane area, with respect to an axis perpendicular to the plane of the figure, is called polar moment of inertia
Radius of gyration The distance from the given axis at which, if all the small elements of the lamina are placed. The Moment of inertia of the lamina about the given axis does not changes. This distance is called radius gyration
Slenderness ratio The ratio of the actual length of a column to the least radius of gyration of the column, is known as slenderness ratio
Radial shear A shear force, which developed in a curved beam or arch across the cross – section of arch or curved that is known as radial shear
Normal thrust Due to external force, an internal force developed perpendicular to the cross section of curved beam is known as normal thrust
Influence line An influence line represents the variation of either the reaction, shear, moment, or deflection at a specific point in a member as a unit concentrated force moves over the member.
Sway The side movement of the end of a column in a frame is called sway
Stiffness Moment required to rotate one end by unit rotation, when rotation is permitted at that end, is called stiffness.
Principal moment of inertia Moment of inertia about principal axis passing through the centroid of a section is called principal moment of inertia
Torque The product of turning force & the distance between the point of application of the force & the axis the shaft is known as torque or turning moment or twisting moment
Coupling a coupling is used to connected two shafts so that the rotatory motion of one can be transmitted to the other
Shape factor It’s a ratio of plastic moment capacity to the yield moment
Resonance When the frequency of the exciting force is equal to one of the natural frequencies of the system, the amplitudes of motion becomes excessively large. This condition is known as resonance.
Damping The resistance to motion which develops due to internal friction of the material, or due to drag effects of surrounding air or other fluids, in which the structure is immersed is known as damping.
Resonant frequency The resonant frequency is the forcing frequency at which deformation magnification factor is maximum.
Transmissibility The ratio of the transmitted force to the applied force is defined as Transmissibility.
Yield or buckle The permanent deformation which a metal piece undergo when it is stressed beyond its elastic limit
Static friction It is the friction experienced by a body when it is at rest. Or in other words, it is the friction when the body tends to move.
Dynamic friction It is the friction experienced by a body when it is in motion. It is also called kinetic friction.
Angle of friction A plane to the horizontal when a body placed on the plane will just start to slide
Angle of repose The angle that the plane of contact between two bodies makes with the horizontal when the upper body is just on the point of sliding
Shear force diagrams A shear force diagram is one which shows the variation of the shear force along the length of beam.
Bending moment diagrams A bending moment diagrams is one which shows the variation of the bending moment along the length of the beam.
Friction Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other.
Fixed end moments the moments induced at the ends of the member due to the applied loads considering the member to be fixed at both the ends are called the fixed end moments
Shear centre The point in the cross-section of beam through which if load acts there will not any twisting of the section but there will be only bending
Plastic hinge It is section at which all the fibres yield, because for any further load rotation takes place at the section without resisting any additional moment
Plastic moment capacity Plastic moment capacity of a section may be defined as the moment which makes all the fibres at that section to yield, and thereby form a plastic hinge
Vibration If the motion of body is oscillating or reciprocating in character, it is called vibration if it involves deformation of the body.
Oscillation In case the reciprocating motion involves only the rigid body movement without involving its deformation, then it is called oscillation.
Free vibration Free vibration occurs under the influence of the forces inherit in the system itself, without any external force.
Forced vibration Forced vibration occur under the influence of a continuous external force
Natural frequency The system under free vibrations vibrates at the frequency known as natural frequency.
Story drift Story drift is the drift of one level of a multi-storey building relative to the level below
Response spectrum The presentation of the maximum response of idealized single degree freedom systems having certain period & damping during earthquake ground motion is referred as response spectrum
Ductility Ductility is the capacity of building materials, structures, systems, elements or members to undergo deformations without significant loss of strength of stiffness
Uniaxial bending When the eccentricity of column with respect to one only, the column is said to be under uniaxial bending
Biaxial bending When the eccentricity of column with respect to both axis in horizontal direction, the column is said to be under biaxial bending
Centre of mass The point through which the resultant of the masses of a system acts is known as centre of mass. This point corresponds to the centre of gravity of masses of system
Centre of stiffness The point through which the resultant of the restoring forces of a system acts
Static eccentricity It is the distance between the centre of mass & centre of stiffness.
Design eccentricity It is the value of eccentricity to be used at floor in torsion calculation for design
Ductility Ductility means the ability to sustain significant inelastic deformation before collapse
SHEAR Forces resulting in two touching parts of a material to slide in opposite directions parallel to their plane of contact.
DAMPING Damping is the rate of decay of amplitude for floor vibrations.
Couple A pair of two equal and unlike parallel forces (i.e. forces equal in magnitude, with lines of action parallel to each other and acting in opposite directions) is known as a couple.
Moment moment of a force (P) about a point, is the product of the force and perpendicular distance (x) between the point and the line of action of the force
Centroid The Centre of area of such figures is known as centroid
Centre of gravity A point from which the weight of a body or system may be considered to act.
Centre of mass A point representing the mean position of the matter in a body or system.
Pure Bending or Simple Bending The stresses will be set up in that length of beam due to B.M. only and that length of beam is said to be in pure bending or simple bending. The stresses set up in that length of beam are known as bending stresses.
Force Defined as an agent which produces or tends to produce, destroys or tends to destroy motion
Amplitude The maximum extent of a vibration or oscillation, measured from the position of equilibrium.
Resultant force A resultant force is the single force and associated torque obtained by combining a system of forces and torques acting on a rigid body. The defining feature of a resultant force, or resultant force-torque, is that it has the same effect on the rigid body as the original system of forces
Resolution of a force The process of splitting up the given force into a number of components, without changing its effect on the body is called resolution of a force
Principal planes The planes, which have no shear stress, are known as principal planes.
Concentrated or point load A concentrated load is one which is considered to act at a point, although in practice it must really be distributed over a small area.
Uniformly distributed load A uniformly distributed load is one which is spread over a beam in such a manner that rate of loading is uniformly along with the length.
Uniformly Varying load A uniformly varying load is one which is spread over a beam in such a manner that rate of loading is varies from point to point along the beam in which load is zero at one end and increases uniformly to the other end.
Neutral axis The neutral axis of any transverse section of beam is defined as the line of intersection of neutral layer with the transverse section.
Axial load When load is acting along the longitudinal axis of column, it is known as axial load.
Eccentric load A load whose line of action does not coincide with the axis of a column, is known as eccentric load.
Crushing load The load at which, short column fails by crushing is called crushing load
Static load Static loads are those which are not changing with time. For example Dead load, Imposed loads of furniture, Floor finishing, Snow load, etc.
Dynamic load Dynamic load is that in which the magnitude, direction or position vary with time. For example Wind loads, Moving loads, Machine loads, Impact and blast loads.
Dead load The weight of the materials which form a permanent part of the structure
Live load The loads which are not steady, but keep on changing position from time to time are called imposed loads
Characteristic load It means that value of load which has a 95 percent probability not being exceeded during the life of the structure
Science The growth of ideas through observation and experimentation. In his sense, the subject of science does not, necessarily, has to contribute something to the welfare of the human life, although the man has received many benefits from the scientific investigations
Applied science The branch of science, which co-ordinates the research work, for practical utility and services of the mankind, is known as Applied Science.
Engineering mechanics The subject of Engineering Mechanics is that branch of Applied Science, which deals with the laws and principles of Mechanics, along with their applications to engineering problems
Statics It is that branch of Engineering Mechanics, which deals with the forces and their effects, while acting upon the bodies at rest.
Dynamics It is that branch of Engineering Mechanics, which deals with the forces and their effects, while acting upon the bodies in motion.
Kinetics It is the branch of Dynamics, which deals with the bodies in motion due to the application of forces.
Kinematics It is that branch of Dynamics, which deals with the bodies in motion, without any reference to the forces which are responsible for the motion.
Elastic body When an external force acts on a body, the body tends to undergo some deformation. If the external force is removed &the body comes back to its origin shape &size (which means the deformation disappears completely), the body is known as elastic body
Factor of safety It is defined as the ratio of ultimate tensile stress to the working or permissible stress.
Strength of Section The strength of section means the moment of resistance offered by the section and moment of resistance.
Limit of eccentricity The maximum distance of load from the center of column, such that if load acts within this distance there is no tension in the column. This maximum distance is called limit of eccentricity.
Core or kernel of section The central part in the cross section of column joining the points of limit such that, if load acts within this part, there will be no tension induced in the column. This central part is known as core or kernel of the section.
Coefficient of wind resistance The reduction factor, depending upon the shape of the area exposed to the wind is called the coefficient of resistance.
Key a key is a wedge-like piece inserted between two machine parts so as to prevent relative movement between them
Strength of shaft or torsional rigidity the strength of a shaft means the maximum torque of maximum power the shaft can transmit
Effective length of column The effective length of column of any column with given end conditions is the length of an equivalent column of the same material & cross-section with hinged ends, & having the value of the crippling load equal to that of the column
Determinate structure The structure for which the reactions at the supports & the internal forces in the members can be found out by the conditions of static equilibrium, is called a statically determinate structure
Indeterminate structure The structure for which the reactions at the supports & the internal forces in the members cannot be found out by the conditions of static equilibrium, is called statically indeterminate structure
Externally redundant If the equations of static equilibrium are not sufficient to determine all the unknown reactions (may be vertical reactions, horizontal reaction or moment) acting on the structure.
Internally redundant If the equations of static equilibrium are not sufficient to determine all the internal forces & forces & moments in the member of the structure, even though all the external forces (including applied forces & reactions) acting on the structure are known as
Degree of redundancy The degree of redundancy of the structure may be defined as the number of unknown forces in excess of equations of statics
Kinematically indeterminate structure If the displacement components of the joints of a structure cannot be determined by compatibility equations alone, the structure is said to be kinematically indeterminate structure
Degree of freedom The number of additional equations necessary for the determination of all he independent displacement components is known as degree of freedom
Basic determinate structure The structure obtained by replacing the redundant reactions by unknown forces or moments is known as a basic determinate structure
Strain energy Strain Energy of the member is defined as the internal work done in deforming the body by the action of externally applied forces
Virtual work The work done by real forces due to hypothetical displacement or the work done by hypothetical forces during real displacements
Span The horizontal distance from one support to another is called the span
Crown The top most point in arch is known as crown
Carry over moment When a moment is applied at one end of a member allowing rotation of that end & fixing the far end, some moment develops at the far end also; that moment is called carry over moment
Carry over factor The ratio of carry over moment to applied moment is called carry over factor
Distribution factor When a moment is applied to a rigid joint where a number of members are meeting, the applied moment is shared by the members meeting at that joint. The ratio of the moment shared by a member to the applied moment at the joint is called the distribution factor
Structural dynamics The study of response of structure under dynamic loading is known as structural dynamics.
Deterministic approach The analysis of the response of structure to prescribed dynamic loading (i.e. time variation of loading is known) is termed as deterministic approach.
Non-deterministic approach The analysis of response of structure to random dynamic loading is called non-deterministic approach.
Single degree of freedom system (sdf) If a single coordinate is sufficient to define at any instant of time the position of the mass of the system, it is referred to as a single degree of freedom system.
Multiple degree of freedom system (mdf) If more than one independent coordinate is required to define at any instant of time the position of different masses of the system, it is referred to as multiple degree of freedom.
Continuous system The mass of system, such as mass is distributed over its length, in which case the mass is considered to have infinite degrees of freedom. Such a system is referred to as a continuous system.
Magnification factor or deformation response factor The maximum value of dynamic load factor is known as magnification factor.
Crust Crust is known as lithosphere.
Mantle Mantle is known as asthenosphere.
Core Core is known as barysphere.
Tectonic plates The convective current of mantle material causes the crust and some portion of the mantle to slide on the hot molten outer core. This sliding of the earth’s mass takes place in portions called tectonic plates.
Plate tectonics Tectonic plates move in different directions and at different speeds relative to the neighbouring plates at rate of 5 to 10 co per year on plastic mantle. This movement is called plate tectonics.
Tectonic earthquake The sudden release of strain energy by rupture the rock at plate boundary is primary cause of seismic activity around the world.
Volcanic earthquake Shallow volcanic earthquake may result from sudden shifting or movement of magma.
Plutonic earthquake Plutonic earthquake are caused by deep seated changes.
Elastic rebound theory The gradual accumulation and subsequent release of stress and strain are now referred to as the elastic rebound theory.
Transform boundary The zone between two plates sliding horizontally past each other without any creation or destruction is called as transform boundary.
Faults Fractures in the rock bodies along which there has been relative displacement of the rock blocks are termed faults.
Fault plane The surface along which the fracture occurs in the rock and movement of the blocks takes place is termed as fault plane or fault surface.
Dip The inclination of fault plane with the horizontal is called dip.
Hade The hade of the fault plane is its inclination with vertical.
Strike Strike of fault plane is the direction of its intersection with horizontal plane.
Slip The slip is defined as the relative displacement of any two points that were formerly contiguous to each other.
Throw The vertical component of the apparent displacement of any two points formerly in constant with each other is called throw.
Heave The horizontal component of the apparent displacement if any two point formerly in contact with each other is called heave.
Strike fault The fault in which the strike direction of the fault and strike direction of the adjacent beds are parallel is called strike fault.
Dip fault The fault in which the strike of fault is parallel to the direction of dip of the adjacent beds.
Oblique fault The type of fault in which the fault plane strikes at an oblique angle to the strike of the beds. It is also termed as diagonal fault.
Dip slip fault Those faults in which the slip occurs parallel to the dip of the fault are named as dip slip fault.
Strike slip fault When in fault, the net slip is in the direction of the strike of the fault it is termed a strike-slip fault.
Oblique slip fault When a fault, the net slip is parallel neither to spinor to strike of the fault but rather inclined to both of these, it is termed as oblique slip fault.
Focus The point within the earth where earthquake rupture starts is called focus or hypocentre.
Epicenter The point on the earth’s surface vertically above the focus of the earthquake is called epicenter.
Focal depth The depth of the focus from the epicenter is called focal depth.
Epicentral distance The distance from the epicenter to any point of interest on the surface on the surface of earth is called Epicentraldistance.
Foreshocks The vibration felt in the bed rock are called shocks.
Aftershocks Smaller size earthquake occurring after the main shock are called aftershocks.
Focal region Seismic destruction propagates from focus through a limited region of the surrounding earth’s body, which is called focal length.
Isoseismal line A counter or a line on map joining points of equal intensity for a particular earthquake is called Isoseismal line.
Homoseismal line The line joining locations at which the shock arrives simultaneously is known as homoseismal line.
Meisoseismal The region that suffers the strong shacking and significant damage during earthquake is termed as meisoseismal region.
Aseismic a fault on which no earthquakes have been observed is called aseismic.
Earthquake Moment shaking of the ground or vibrations or oscillations of the ground caused by the slip or by volcanic or magnetic activity or other sudden stress changes in the earth are called earthquakes.
Seismicity The geographic and historical distributor of earthquake is known as seismic.
Seismograph A seismograph is an instrument used to measure the vibration of the earth.
Seismogram It is a record of seismograph in response to ground motion produced by an earthquake.
Seismoscope This is simple seismograph (without timer device) that records earthquake ground motion on a paper without time marks (i.e. drum holding the chart paper does not rotate). Such instruments provide only the maximum extent (scope) of motion during an earthquake.
Seismometer In the most modern seismograph an electric transducer referred to as seismometer, senses the motion and produces an analog electrical signal for subsequent processing.
Displacement meter The instrument that measures the displacement of ground is known as displacement meter.
Accelerometer These are the instrument shaving electric transducers that produce an output voltage proportional to the ground acceleration duration earthquake.i.e. it measures ground acceleration.
Accelerogram The motion of the ground can be described in terms of displacement, velocity or acceleration. The variation of ground acceleration with time recorded at a point on ground during an earthquake is called an accelerogram.
Seismic gap A section of fault that has produced earthquake in the past but is now quiet, is called seismic gap.
Seismic zone An area of similar seismic activities.
Magnitude The magnitude of earthquake is a measure of the amount of energy released during an earthquake.
Intensity The size of earthquake can be described by its intensity.
Pga The largest horizontal acceleration of a ground is known as Peak ground acceleration (PGA).
Interpolate earthquake Most earthquake in world occur along the boundaries of the tectonic plates and are called interpolate earthquakes.
Intraplate earthquake A number of earthquakes also occur within the plate itself away from the plate boundaries, are called intraplate earthquakes.
Earthquake proof design Design of building wherein there is no damage during the strong but rare earthquake shaking is called earthquake proof design.
Design basis earthquake (dbe) Design Basis Earthquake is defined as the maximum earthquake that reasonably can be expected to occur at least once during the design life of structure.
Maximum considered earthquake Maximum considered Earthquake (MCE) is the earthquake corresponding to the ultimate safety requirement.
Lateral strength The maximum lateral force that it can resist is such that the damage induced in it does not result in collapse
Adequake stiffness Its lateral load resisting system is such that the earthquake-induced deformation in it do not damage its contents under low-to-moderate shaking
Fundamental natural period The time taken of each complete one cycle for oscillation is called fundamental natural period
Moment resisting frame The ability of a multi-storey building to resist the lateral forces depends on the rigidity of the joints between the beams & the columns. When these joints are fully rigid, the structure as a whole is capable of resisting the lateral loads. Such type of structure is called a moment resisting frame
Pounding When two buildings having different in height & are too close to each other, during strong shaking roof of any building striking or hitting to other building is called
Rigid diaphragm Reinforced concrete or reinforced brick slabs have good bending strength in horizontal plane & are called rigid diaphragms
Flexible diaphragms The roofs or floors made of timber or joists with brick tile coverings are very flexible & are call as flexible diaphragms
Diaphragm failure When diaphragm is flexible, the inertia forces will be distributed equally to the diaphragm on which it is supported. While this diaphragm tend to overturn due to inertia force that’s type of failure known as diaphragm failure
Torsionally coupled system The structural system for which centre of mass & centre of stiffness doesn’t coincide is called torsionally coupled system
Torsionally uncoupled system The structural system for which centre of mass ¢er of stiffness coincide is called torsionally uncoupled system
Base Isolation It is a technique of controlling structural response in which the building or structure is decoupled from the horizontal components of the earthquake ground motion by interposing a layer with low horizontal stiffness between the structure & foundation
Seismic damper A mechanical device to dissipate kinetic energy of seismic waves penetrating a building structure
Shotcrete or guniting It is a mortar or a fine concrete that is pneumatically transported through a hose & projected onto a surface at a high velocity
Strength It is property of an element or a structure to resist force
Stiffness It is the property of an element to resist displacement
Stability of structure A structural system is in a state of equilibrium if the constraints permit no rigid-body movement upon application of loads
Serviceability It implies satisfactory performance of the structure under service loads, without discomfort to the user due to excessive deflection, cracking, vibration & so on
Limit state The acceptable limit for the safety & serviceability requirements before failure occurs is called a limit state
Limit state of collapse The resistance to bending, shear, torsion & axial loads at every section shall not be less than the appropriate value at that section produced by the probable most unfavorable combination of loads on the structure using the appropriate partial safety factors
Limit state of serviceability The serviceability limit dead’s with conditions such as deflection, cracking under service loads, durability under given environment, fire resistance, fatigue etc.
Characteristic strength Characteristic strength mean that value of strength of the material below which not more than 5% of the test results are expected to fall.
TMT bar TMT bars are manufactured by subjecting the hot rolled M.S. bars to a controlled cooling process which converts the outer surface of the bar into hardened structure
Neutral axis The axis which separate compression zone & zone in the cross section of a beam is known as neutral axis
Brittle failure of beam The failure of beam may be due to the failure of concrete is known as brittle failure of beam
Ductile failure of beam The failure of beam may be due to the failure of steel is known as ductile failure of beam
Maximum depth of neutral axis (Xu,max) The depth of neutral axis up to which brittle failure (compression failure) of concrete can be avoided is known as the maximum depth of neutral axis
Development length To transfer the design force from steel to concrete & vice versa, the reinforcement is anchored or embedded in concrete for some length. A length of reinforcement embedded in concrete so that it can develop the bond stress, is termed as development length
Pitch The vertical distance between two consecutive ties in column is called pitch
Gross bearing capacity Total pressure acting at the base of footing including self weight of footing, weight of column, over burden pressure of soil above footing, etc. is called gross bearing capacity
Safe bearing capacity of soil The net pressure at the base of the footing after deducting the weight of the excavated soil (overburden pressure) is called safe bearing capacity of soil
One-way spanning slab If the slab is supported on two opposite sides, it is called one way spanning slab.
Two-way spanning slabs The tendency of the slab is to bend in both directions. Such slabs are called two way slabs
Uncracked condition It is assumed that the whole section is resisting the moment, & maximum tensile stress in concrete is calculated which should not exceed the permissible tensile stress in concrete
Circular tank with flexible joint at base The side will is free to expand or contract as the joint between floor & side wall is flexible
Circular tank with restrained at base The movement of side wall is restricted by providing fixity or continuity with the base
Backfill The material retained or supported by a retaining wall is called backfill
Surcharge The portion of backfill lying above the horizontal plane at the elevation of the top of a wall is called surcharge
Weep holes To release the pore water pressure developed in the backfill material during rainy season, weep holes are provided in the retaining wall
GAGE Gage can refer to the thickness of a sheet of material or the distance between centerlines in a set of holes, usually perpendicular to the joist or joist girder.
GIRDER A girder is the main horizontal member spanning between two main supports and carries other members or vertical loads within the structure.
HIP ROOF A roof sloping from all four sides of a building.
JOIST A structural load-carrying member with an open web system which supports floors and roofs utilizing hot-rolled or cold-formed steel and is designed as a simple span member.
REACTION Reaction is the force or moment developed at the points of a support.
SEISMIC LOAD Loads produced during the seismic movements of an earthquake.
SPAN The distance between supports.
STRUCTURAL STEELS Steels suitable for load-carrying members in a structure.
STRUT A structural brace that resists axial forces.
STUD A vertical wall member used to attach other structures, such as walls.
TORSION LOADS A load that causes a member to twist about its longitudinal axis. A couple or moment in a plane perpendicular to the axis produces simple torsion.
YARD The principal unit of length in the Imperial system; three feet, equal to 914.4mm.
WELDING A technique for joining steel components by the deposition of small drops of molten steel which bonds to the parent metal
WEB The middle plate of an I-beam, H-beam or channel. The web connects the two flanges, and resists shear forces
VIERENDEEL GIRDER A type of truss consisting of vertical and horizontal members arranged like a ladder on its side
VALLEY The meeting of two roof planes at an internal angle; the rafter which forms the junction
UNIVERSAL COLUMN A standardized steel component which is H-shaped in cross-section
UNIVERSAL BEAM A standardized steel component which is I-shaped in cross section
TIE Any member which provides a tensile force to tie two other members together, especially, the bottom horizontal member of a roof truss, and (in a steel framed structure) steel beams whose main function is to tie columns together
TENSION A pulling force, such as that experienced by a cable, or in the bottom flange of a beam with a load on it
SUBSIDENCE A downwards movement, especially a movement of foundations. The term is most often used to describe the movement of foundations on clay soil, when the soil shrinks due to becoming drier
STRINGER Angled structural beam supporting the treads and risers of a staircase
STRAP A component, usually steel, installed to ensure that walls are connected to and restrained by floors
STEELFIXER A worker who specializes in placing reinforcement for reinforced concrete
STEEL ANGLE A structural steel component, the cross section of which is L-shaped
STEEL A metal based on iron, with the addition of carefully defined quantities of carbon and other elements to produce a metal with specific qualities
SPLICE A steelwork connection for joining (for example) two lengths of column to form a longer column. Beams can also be spliced, but the splice must not, if possible, be in the middle of the beam where the bending moment is greatest
SOFFITE The underside of a building component such as a lintel or beam. A board fitted to the underside of the ends of rafters or flat roof joists
SOAKER A metal sheet bent at a right-angle, part of the waterproof flashing of the junction of a tiled or slated roof abutting a wall
SETTLEMENT The small downwards movement of foundations when the weight of the building comes onto them, due to compression of the soil. Tends to be negligible in clay soil but can be significant in sand
ROLLED STEEL JOIST (RSJ) One of a range of I- and H-shaped steel members. Only small sizes of joist are still produced, most of the larger sizes having been replaced by Universal and Universal Column sections. RSJs were originally devised for use in filler-joist construction
RIVET Before structural steel I and H sections became available engineers made up sections by joining narrow plates together using steel rivets with a head formed by hammering while red-hot
RIDGE TILE A curved tile which covers the ridge on a pitched roof
RIDGE The top of a pitched roof, where roof planes that slope in opposite directions meet
RETAINING WALL Retains soil on one side. May be made of masonry, reinforced concrete, or various other traditional or proprietary structural systems
RAFTER Sloping structural member supporting a roof
QUEEN POST TRUSS A truss with two posts directly supporting the purlins
PUTLOG OR PUTLOCK A horizontal scaffold member one end of which is built into the wall
PURLIN A horizontal structural member which supports a sloping roof covering, with or without rafters, and which carries the roof loads to the primary framing members
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE Concrete strengthened with steel wires which are stressed before the concrete is poured
POST STRESSED CONCRETE Concrete strengthened with steel wires which are stressed after the concrete has cured
PITCH Of roofs, the angle of the rafters from the horizontal. Traditionally the pitch was expressed as the number of vertical inches corresponding to twelve horizontal inches, thus a 45 degree roof was described as a twelve inch pitch
PILING RIG A machine which drills a hole in the ground for a cast-in-situ pile
PILE DRIVER Machine for hammering or forcing piles into the ground
PILE CAP A (normally reinforced concrete) structure transferring loads from the building into the piles
PILE A foundation consisting of a deep column extending down into the ground, used when the foundation needs to get support from a deeper and stronger or more stable layer
PERMISSIBLE STRESS Stress that can be sustained safely. Codes of Practice for structural design used to specify permissible stresses with which the actual stress was to be compared
NEEDLE As a noun, a short beam introduced through a wall to provide temporary support while the wall is being re-supported. As a verb, to insert such beams
LOAD FACTOR Engineers design structures to support loads which are more than the maximum load expected
LINTEL, LINTOL A short beam over a door or window opening; may be steel, concrete or, traditionally, timber
LACING Generally horizontal members that connect together and reduce the unsupported length of compression members
KING POST TRUSS Roof truss with a central vertical member
KENTLEDGE Heavy weights used to counter balance a load or provide a reaction
HIP A roof feature in which two pitched roofs meet at a corner; the rafter forming such a junction
HIGH TENSILE STEEL A grade of steel stronger than mild steel, which may be used both in structural steelwork and concrete reinforcement
FOUNDATION The part of a building or structure which transmits loads to the soil
FORCE That which tends to accelerate a body or change its movement
FLITCHED BEAM, FLITCH A timber beam strengthened with one or more steel plates bolted or screwed to it, often sandwiched between timbers
FLAT ROOF A roof with a slope or pitch less than ten degrees from the horizontal
FLANGE The top and bottom plates of an I- or H-beam, or of a channel. The top and bottom flanges of a beam are usually in compression and tension respectively
EXTRADOS The upper surface of an arch
DOWEL A steel bar for transferring load across a joint. (Joinery) A timber molding with a circular cross section
COUPLER, COUPLING A device for mechanically joining two linear components like pipes, scaffold tubes, or a drill bit with an extension
CLADDING The separately-applied exterior finish of a framed building
BRACE, BRACING Diagonal members (or rigid membranes) providing rigidity to a structure
BOLT Threaded fastener used (with a nut and washers) for connecting building components, particularly steel and/or timber
BRIDGE single or multiple span structure, including supports, erected over a depression or an obstruction such as water, a highway or railway and having a track or passageway for carrying traffic
BRIDGE BEARING The support at the bridge pier or abutment, which carries the weight of a bridge
BRIDGE DECK The load-bearing floor of a bridge, that carries and spreads the loads to the main beams
CANTILEVER FOOTING A combined footing that supports an exterior wall or exterior columns
CORRUGATIONS Regular transverse undulation or alternate ridges upon a metal pipe surface to give greater rigidity to thin plates
DECK A flat roof, a quay, jetty or bridge floor, generally a floor form with no roof over upon which concrete for a slab is placed
DEFORMED BAR A reinforcing bar with ridges to increase bonding between the reinforcing bar and concrete
DUCTILITY The ability of a metal to undergo cold plastic deformation without breaking, particularly by pulling in cold drawing
DURABILITY The ability of materials to resist weathering action, chemical attack, abrasion or other conditions of service
ECCENTRIC LOAD A load on a column applied at a point away from the column center and therefore putting a bending movement on the column equal in amount to the load multiplied by the arm
EFFICIENCY It is the power output divided by the power input
EROSION Wearing or scouring caused by the abrasive action of moving water or wind
FATIGUE The lowering of the breaking-load of a member by repeated reversals of stress so that the member fails at a much lower stress than it can withstand under static loading
FAULTING The difference in elevation of two adjacent concrete slabs at a joint, primarily caused by the traffic-induced movement of base material particles from under one joint edge to under the adjacent joint edge
FILLET WELD A weld of roughly triangular cross-section between two pieces at right angles
FUSION WELDING The welding of metals or plastics by any method which involves melting of the edges of the parts to be joined without pressure
GABIONS Compartmented rectangular containers made of galvanized hexagonal steel wire mesh and filled with stone. Gabions are used to stabilize and protect embankment slopes from erosion
GANTRY A temporary staging for carrying heavy loads, such as earth
GIRDER A large beam, usually of steel or concrete. Its chords are parallel or nearly so, unlike a truss
GRILLAGE A footing or part of a footing consisting of horizontally laid timbers or steel beams
LONG COLUMN A column which fails when overloaded, by buckling rather than bycrushing. In reinforced-concrete work this is assumed to happen when columns which are longer than fifteen times their least dimension
NEGATIVE MOMENT A condition of flexure (Bending) in which top fibers of a horizontally placed member (Beam), or external fibers of a vertically placed exterior member (Column), are subjected to tensile stresses
NEUTRAL SURFACE: In a beam bent downwards, the line or surface of zero stress, belowwhich all fibers are stressed in tension and above which they are compressed. The neutral axis passes through the center of area of the section (Centroid), if it is of homogeneous material
PASSIVE PRESSURE A pressure acting to counteract active pressure
ACTIVE EARTH PRESSURE The horizontal push from earth onto a wall
PIER A wide column or a wall of masonry, plain or reinforced concrete for carrying heavy loads, such as a support for a bridge
PIER CAP The top part of a bridge pier which uniformly distribute the concentrated loads from the bridge over the pier
PIER SHAFT The part of a pier structure which is supported by the pier foundation
PILE A long slender timber, concrete, or steel structural element, driven, jetted, or otherwise embedded on end in the ground for the purpose of supporting a load or compacting the soil
POST-TENSIONING A method of prestressing concrete in which the cables are pulled or the concrete is jacked up after it has been placed
PRECAST CONCRETE Concrete beams, columns, lintels, piles, manholes, and parts of walls and floors which are cast and partly matured on the site or in a factory before being placed in their final position in a structure
PRESTRESSING A process of preparing concrete slabs and beams for extra strength by placing the mix over tightly-drawn special steel wire rope or rods which are later released to provide strong dense concrete
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE Concrete in which cracking and tensile forces are eliminated or greatly reduced by compressing it by stretched cables, wires or bars within it
RIGIDITY Resistance to twisting or shearing
SAGGING MOMENT A bending moment which causes a beam to sink in the middle.Usually described as a positive moment
SETTLEMENT OR SUBSIDENCE Downward movement of a structure such as a railway bridge, dam, or building, due to compression or downward movement of soil below it
SHUTTERING That part of formwork which either is in contact with the concrete or has the form lining attached to it
SPAN The distance between the supports of a bridge, truss, arch, girder, floor, beam, etc
STRESS-ABSORBING MEMBRANE INTERLAYER (SAMI) A low-stiffness mixture of asphalt cement, rubber and mineral aggregate placed between layers of pavement to retard the transfer of stresses between the layers
SUBSTRUCTURE All that part of the bridge below the bridge seats, tops of piers, haunches of rigid frames or below the spring lines of arches
SUPERSTRUCTURE All that part of a structure above and including the bearing of simple and continuous spans, skewbacks of arches and top of footings of rigid frames, excluding back walls, wing walls, and wing protection rails
TANDEM ROLLER A road roller having rolls (drums) of about the same diameter behind each other on the same track
TACK WELD A temporary half-inch thick weld that holds steel parts together during fabrication
TEMPERATURE STEEL Reinforcement which is inserted in a slab or other concrete member to prevent cracks due to shrinkage or temperature stresses from becoming too large
TENDON A pre-stressing bar, cable, rope, strand or wire
THRUST A horizontal force, particularly the horizontal force exerted by retained earth
TOUGHNESS The resistance of a material to repeated bending and twisting
TORQUE, TORSION OR TWIST The twisting effect of a force on a shaft applied tangentially, like the twist on a haulage drum which winds rope on to its circumference
TRUSS A frame, of steel, but also sometimes of timber, concrete, or light alloy, to carry a roof or bridge, built up wholly from members in tension and compression
WARPING Deviation of pavement surface from original profile caused by temperature and moisture differentials
WORK The product of a force and the distance through which it moves. It is to be distinguished from energy and from power which is a rate of doing work
Abrasion The grinding away of a rock by friction and impact during transportation.
Aftershock Small earthquake that follows a main shock
Alluvial deposits General term for clastic sedimentary rocks with no cohesion, which have been transported and deposited by a stream
Aquifer A body of saturated rock or sediment through which water can move readily.
Artesian well A well in which water rises above the aquifer
Bedrock Solid rock that underlies soil
Blowout A depression on the land surface caused by wind erosion
Body waves Seismic waves that travel through the earth´s interior.
Boulder A sediment particle with a diameter greater than 256 mm
Canyon A long, deep valley with steep slopes, which was formed as a result of water stream erosion
Cavitation It is particularly observed where river water suddenly acquire exceptionally high velocity such as at the location of a waterfall
Cliff Steep, high rock on marine coast, which arose by water erosion
Columnar structures Volcanic rock appears to be made up of numerous parallel polygonal prismatic columns bundled together as a result of contraction of the lava during cooling.
Creeping The creeping or slow movement of rock beds along hill slopes may result in the bending of the weak beds
Core The central zone of the earth. It´s radius is 3478 km
Crust The outer layer of rock, forming a thin skin over the earth´s surface
Delta A body of sediment deposited at the mouth of a river when the river velocity decreases as it flows into a standing body of water.
Denudation General term for lowering of the earth surface by processes such as erosion etc.
Deposition The settling or coming to rest of transported material.
Dip angle A vertical angle measured downward from the horizontal plane to an inclined plane.
Earthflow Slow-to- rapid mass wasting in which debris moves downslope as a very viscous fluid
Fault A fracture in bedrock along which movement has taken place
Fracture The way a substance breaks where not controlled by cleavage
Fragments of rocks Pieces of rock decomposed by mechanical or chemical weathering
Fresh rock Rock not affected by weathering
Frost action Mechanical weathering of rock by expansion of freezing water.
Geology Scientific branch studying origin and development of the Earth and other planets
Geophysics The application of physical laws and principles to a study of the earth.
Geyser A type of hot spring that periodically erupts hot water and steam.
Glaciation General term for covering of the Earth surface by a glacier
Gneiss A metamorphic rock composed prevailingly of quartz, feldspars and micas arranged in plane parallel structure
Granite A felsic, coarse-grained, intrusive igneous rock composed mostly of quartz, feldspars and often containing micas. It belongs to group of granitoids
Gravel Sediment composed of rounded particles coarser than 2 mm in diameter.
Groundwater The water that lies beneath the ground surface, filling the cracks, crevices, and pore space of rocks
Holocrystalline rocks Igneous rocks with fully crystalized rock mass
Hydraulic action This is the most powerful effect in which sea breakdown the rocks along the coast by their powerful impact of sea waves
Igneous rocks A rocks formed or apparently formed from solidification of magma.
Intrusive rocks Rocks that appears to have crystallized from magma emplaced in surrounding rock
Joint A fracture or crack in bedrock along which essentially no displacement has occurred
Landslide The general term for a slowly to very rapidly descending rock or debris (see earthflow).
Lava Magma on the earth's surface. Fluid rock such as that which issues from a volcano or a fissure in the earth's surface.
Lava flow Long, narrow stream of lava flowing downhill from a volcano.
Magma Molten rock, usually mostly silica. It may contain dissolved gases as well as some solid minerals
Magnitude A measure of the energy released during an earthquake.
Marble A fine- or coarse-grained metamorphic rock composed of interlocking calcite crystals.
Meander A pronounced sinuous curve along a stream's course
Mineral A naturally occuring, inorganic, homogenous, crystalline or amorphous mostly solid that has a definite chemical composition
Outcrop A surface exposure of bare rock, not covered by soil or vegetation
Oxbow lake A crescent-shaped lake occupying the abandoned channel of a stream meander that is isolated from the present channel by a meander cutoff and sedimentation
P-waves Compressional waves (seismic waves) in which rock vibrates parallel to the direction of wave propagation
Parent rock Original rock before being metamorphosed
Permeability The capacity of a rock to transmit a fluids (liquids or gases).
Porosity The percentage of a rock's volume that is taken up by openings
Richter scale A numerical scale of earthquake magnitudes.
Rock Rock is inhomogeneous mineral association which forms the earth's crust in a form of many separated units. Every rock is characterized by structure, texture and mineral composition reflecting its origin.
Rockfall Rock falling freely or bouncing down a cliff.
Rupture Brittle deformation of rock
S-waves A seismic waves propagated by a shearing motion, which causes rock to vibrate perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation
Sand dune A mound of loose sand grains heaped up by the wind
Sedimentary rocks Rock that has formed from (1) lithification of any type of sediment, precipitation from solution.
Seismic waves A wave of energy produced by an earthquake
Seismogram Paper record of earth vibration
Seismograph A seismometer with a recording device that produces a permanent record of earth motion
Slip In mass wasting, movement of a descending mass along one or more well-defined surfaces (see landslide).
Specific gravity The ratio of the mass of an equal volume of water, determined at a specified temperature
Spring A place where water flows naturally out of rock onto the land surface
Strike The compass direction of a line formed by the intersection of an inclined plane (such as a bedding plane) with a horizontal plane.
Structural geology The branch of geology concerned with the internal structure of bedrock and the shapes, arrangement, and interrelationships of rock units
Tectonic forces Forces generated from within the earth that result in uplift, movement, or deformation of part of the earth's crust
Tension fault Fault in the earth's crust created by tensional forces.
Thrust fault A reverse fault in which the dip of the fault plane is at a low angle to horizontal
Transparent Term for a substance which transmits light and if place this substance over an image on paper you will see it
Tsunami Huge ocean wave produced by diplacement of the sea floor; also called seismic sea wave.
Unconfined aquifer A partially filled aquifer exposed to the land surface and marked by a rising and falling water table.
Volcanism Volcanic activity, including the eruption of lava and rock fragments and gas explosions.
Volcano A hill or mountain constructed by the extrusion of lava or rock fragments from a vent.
Water table The upper surface of the zone of saturation
Weak zone Zone in rock massif where rock properties are significantly worse then in surrounding rock
Weathering The group of processes that change rock at near the earth's surface
Well A hole, generally cylindrical and usually walled or lined with pipe, that is dug or drilled into the ground to penetrate an aquifer below the zone of saturation.
Soil Soil is unaggregated or deposits of mineral or organic particle produced by the disintegration of rock.
Soil mechanics It is the branch of engineering which deals with the application of soil science, the static and dynamic laws and principals of mechanics and hydraulics to engineering problems dealing with soil as structural material.
Soil engineering It is an applied science dealing with the application of principles of soil mechanics to practical problems.
Cohesionless soil A soil that, when unconfined, has little or no strength when air dried and that has little or no cohesion when submerged. For purely Cohesionless soil C=0
Cohesive soil A soil that, when unconfined, has considerable strength when air dried and that has significant cohesion when submerged. Fore purely cohesive soil Ø=0
Soil profile Vertical section of soil, showing the natural and sequence of various layers, as developed by deposition or weathering, or both.
Void Space in a soil mass not occupied by solid mineral matter. This space may be occupied by air, water or other gaseous or liquid material.
Void ratio The ratio of the volume of void space to the volume of solid particles in a given soil mass.
Porosity The ratio, usually expressed as a percentage, of the volume of voids of a given soil mass, to the total volume of the soil mass.
Air void ratio The ratio of the volume of the air space to the volume of solids, in a soil mass.
Dry density The weight of oven dried soil per unit volume of soil mass.
Unit weight Weight per unit volume of a soil mass.
Dry unit weight The weight of oven dry soil per unit volume of soil mass.
Saturated unit weight The ratio of total saturated weight of soil solids to the total volume of soil mass
Submerged unit weight The ratio of total submerged weight of soil solids to the total volume of soil mass
Water content (moisture content) The ratio of weight of water to the weight of dry soil.
Density index (Relative density) ID It is defined as the ratio of the difference between the void ratio of a cohesionless soil in the loosest state and any given void ratio, to the difference between its void ratios in the loosest and in the densest state. ID = [(emax-e)/( emax- emin)] * 100
Bulking It is the increase in volume of a material due to handling. Rock bulk upon excavation; damp sand bulk if loosely deposited, as by dumping, because the apparent cohesion prevents movement of the soil particles to form a reduced volume.
Gradation Proportion of material of each grain size present in a given soil
Grain size analysis The process of determining gradation
Gravel Angular, rounded or semi rounded particles of rock or soil of particle size between 4.75 mm and 80 mm Specific Gravity 2.65-2.68
Boulder A more or less rounded block or fragment of rock and of average dimension 300 mm or greater.
Fines Portion of a soil finer than 75 micron
Silt Fine grained soil which exhibits a little or no plasticity and has a little or no strength when air dried. Its size ranges from 75 micron to 0.002 mm specific Gravity 2.66-2.68
Clay An aggregate of microscopic and sub microscopic particles derived from the chemical decomposition and disintegration of rock constituents. It is plastic within a moderate to wide range of water content. It is smaller than 0.002 mm in size. specific Gravity 2.70-2.80
Effective diameter, D10 Particle diameter corresponding to 10 % finer on the grain size curve.
Coefficient of uniformity(Cu) It is mathematically expressed as D60/D10.
Coefficient of curvature(Cc) It is used to classify the soil C_c=〖D_30〗^2/(D_10*D_60 ) Where, D10, D30 and D60 are the diameters of particles corresponding to 10, 30 and 60% finer respectively.
Sensitivity The ratio of unconfined compressive strength of an undisturbed specimen, of the soil mass, to the unconfined compressive strength of specimen of the same soil after remoulding at unaltered water content. The effect of remoulding on the consistency of a cohesive soil.
Soil structure Arrangement of soil particles in soil mass
Consistency The degree of resistance offered by a fine grained soil to deformation.
Plasticity The property of soil which allows it to be deformed beyond the point of recovery without cracking or appreciable volume change
Flow curve The locus of points obtained from a standard liquid limit test using the mechanical device plotted on a graph representing water content as ordinate on an arithmetic scale and the number of drops as abscissa on a logarithmic scale
Flow index The slope of the flow curve obtained from a liquid limit test using the mechanical devices
Liquid limit The water content at which soil change from liquid state to the plastic state.
Plastic limit The water content at which soil change from the plastic state to semi-solid state.
Shrinkage limit The water content at which soil change from the semi-solid state.
Consistency index Ratio of the liquid limit minus the natural moisture content to the plasticity index of a soil.
Liquidity index The ratio expressed as a percentage of the natural water content of soil minus its plastic limit to its plasticity index
Plasticity index Numerical difference between the liquid limit and the plastic limit
Shrinkage index The numerical difference between the plastic and shrinkage limit
Toughness index The ratio of the plasticity index to the flow index
Activity It is ratio of the plasticity index to the clay fraction
Adhesion Shearing resistance between soil and another material under zero externally applied pressure
Adsorbed water Water in a soil mass, held by physio-chemical forces, having physical properties are substantially different from absorbed or free water or chemically combined water at the same temperature and pressure
Absorbed water Water held mechanically (by surface tension) in a soil mass
Effective force The force transmitted through a soil mass by inter granular pressure
Capillary water Water subject to the influence of capillary action.
Effective unit weight That unit weight of a soil which, when multiplied by the height of the overlying column of soil, yields the effective pressure due to the weight of the overburden
Quick condition or quick sand Condition in which water is flowing upwards with sufficient velocity to reduce the shear resistance of the soil through a decrease in inter-granular pressure
Permeability The property of soil which permits percolation Gravel > 1 Sand 1 - 1×10-3 Silt 5 × 10-4 - 1 × 10-5 Clay 1 × 10-6
Seepage (percolation) Slow movement of gravitational water through the soil
Flow line The path that a particle of water follows in its course of seepage under laminar flow conditions
Flow net A graphical representation of flow lines and equipotential lines used in the study of seepage phenomena
Discharge velocity Rate of discharge of water through a porous medium per unit of total area perpendicular to the direction of flow
Hydraulic gradient The difference or drop of hydraulic head per unit distance of flow
Critical hydraulic gradient The difference or drop of hydraulic head per unit distance of flow
Hydraulic pressure The pressure in a liquid under static condition; the product of the unit weight of the liquid and the difference in elevation between the given point and the free water elevation
Excess hydrostatic pressure The pressure that exerts in pore water in excess of the hydrostatic pressure
Phreatic line The upper free water surface of the zone of seepage
Piping The movement of soil particles by percolation water leading to internal erosion and the development of channels in the soil mass. Formation of the pipe shaped channel in foundation such as weirs, dams.
Alignment The position or the layout of the centre line of the highway on the ground is called alignment.
Annual average daily traffic (AADT) AADT is obtained by determining average daily traffic volume recorded for all 365 days of the year.
Arterial Roads Street primarily for through traffic usually on a continuous route
Average daily traffic (ADT) When the traffic volume counts are carried only for a few days the average daily traffic obtained is called ADT.
Bitumen Any of various black solid or tarry flammable substances composed of an impure mixture of hydrocarbons, either occurring naturally or obtained by the distillation of petroleum, and which is used for surfacing roads and pavements, etc.
Berm The portion of land width left in between the toe of road embankment and the inner edges of borrow pit.
Borrow pits The pits dug along the alignment of a road for using their material in the construction of embankment are known as borrow pits.
Bypass Road joining two parts of an older road to avoid a town or village.
Carriageway The portion of roadway constructed for movement of vehicular traffic is called carriageway.
Collector Street Street for collecting and distributing traffic from and to local streets and also for providing access to arterial streets.
Cross slope or Camber Cross slope or camber is the slope provided o he road surface in the transverse direction to drain off the rain water from the road surface.
Design Speed It is the most important factor controlling the geometric design elements of highways. The design speed is decided taking into account the overall requirements of the highway.
Detailed Project Report (DPR) DPR should be prepared after completing all the detailed studies including final location survey, preparation of cross sections, soil and material surveys, drainage studies etc.
Drive ways Drive ways connect the highway with commercial establishment like fuel-stations, service-stations etc.
Equivalent single wheel load (ESWL) ESWL of the dual wheel load assembly at a depth z, may be defined as the single wheel load replacement of the dual wheel load assembly which will cause the same magnitude of vertical deflection or same value of compressive stress at that depth, z.
Exceptional Gradient In some extraordinary situations it may be unavoidable to provide still steeper gradients than limiting gradient at least for short stretches and in such cases the steeper gradient up to exceptional gradient may be provided.
Flexible pavement Flexible pavement are those, which on the whole have low or negligible flexural strength and are rather flexible in their structural action under loads
Footpath or side-walk In order to provide safe facility to pedestrians to walk along the roadway, footpaths or side-walks are provided in urban area.
Formation width or roadway It is the sum of width of pavement or carriageway including separators, if any and shoulders.
Frontage roads Frontage roads are provided to give access to properties along an important highway with controlled access to express way or freeway.
Grade separated intersections The intersecting roads are separated by difference in level, thus eliminating the crossing manoeuvres.
Guard rails Guard rails are provided at the edge of the shoulder when the road is constructed on fill so that vehicles are prevented from running off the Embankment.
Highway capacity It is the ability of the roadway or the traffic lane to allow maximum traffic flow or traffic volume per unit time.
Horizontal clearances Horizontal clearance is the distance between the extreme edges of the carriageway to the face of structure.
Horizontal curve Bend from a straight line or course along a roadway.
Indication sign This sign provide information of facilities such as hospital, filling station, telephone, eating place, rest house, first aid post etc.
Informatory signs This sign is intended to guide the motorists along the streets and highways
Intersection at grade These include all roads which meet at more or less the same level.
Intersections Intersections is defined as the general area where two or more highways join or cross, within which are included the roadway and roadside facilities for traffic movement in that area.
Kerb Kerb indicate he boundary between the pavement and median or footpath or island or shoulder.
Land width The width of acquired land for right of way is known as land width.
Limiting Gradient Where topography of a place compels adopting steeper gradient than the ruling gradient, limiting gradient is used in view of enormous increase in cost in constructing roads with gentler gradients.
Local Street A street primarily for access to residence, business or other abutting property.
Major District Roads (MDR) Roads within a district serving areas of production and markets and connecting with major roads or main highways of a district.
Mandatory sign This sign is intended to convey definite positive instructions when it is desired that motorists take some positive actions.
Medians or Traffic separators In highways with divided carriageway, a median is provided between two sets of traffic lanes intended to divide the traffic moving in opposite directions.
Minimum gradient It is provided from drainage point of view
National Highway (NH) Main highways running through the length and breadth of India, connecting major ports, foreign highways, capitals of large states and large industrial and tourist centres including roads required for strategic movements for the defence of India.
Obligatory points Control points governing the alignment of the highways.
Other District Roads (ODR) Roads serving rural areas of production and providing them with outlet to market centres, taluka headquarters, block development headquarters or other main roads.
Passenger car unit (PCU) Passenger car is considered as the standard vehicle unit to convert the other vehicle classes and this unit is called passenger car unit (PCU).
Pavement unevenness Presence of undulations on the pavement surface is called pavement unevenness.
Prohibitory sign This sign is intended to inform the highway users of traffic laws or regulations.
Reaction time It is the time taken from the instant the object is visible to the driver to the instant the brakes are effectively applied.
Regulatory signs Regulatory signs are meant to inform the road users of certain laws, regulations and prohibitions.
Right of way Right of way is the area of land acquired for the road along its alignment.
Rigid pavement Rigid pavements are those which possess noteworthy flexural strength or flexural rigidity.
Road marking Road marking are used as a means of a controlling and guiding traffic.
Roadway Cuts Segments of roadway lower than the surrounding ground.
Roadway Embankment A raised structure of soil, soil-aggregate, sand or rock.
Ruling Gradient It is the maximum gradient within which the designer attempts to design the vertical profile of a road.
Running speed It is the average speed maintained by a vehicle over a given course while the vehicle is in motion.
Shoulder Shoulders are provided along the outer edges of road serving as emergency lane and service lane; also provides structural stability and support to the edges and increases the capacity of carriageway.
Sight Distance Sight distance is the length of road visible to the driver at any instance.
Skid Skid occurs when the wheels slide without revolving or rotating or when the wheels partially revolve i.e., when the path travelled along the road surface is more than the circumferential movements of the wheels due to their motion.
Slip Slip occurs when a wheel revolves more than the corresponding longitudinal movement along the roads.
Space mean speed It is the average of the speed measurements at an instant of time over a space.
Spoil bank The banks constructed from surplus excavated earth on the side of road cutting parallel to its alignment, are known as spoil banks.
Spot speed It is the instantaneous speed of a vehicle at a specified cross section or location
State Highway (SH) State highways are arterial roads of a state, connecting the national highways of adjacent state, district head headquarters and important cities within the state and serve as the main arteries for traffic to and from district roads.
Sub-arterial Roads Street primarily for through traffic usually on a continuous route but offering somewhat lower level of traffic mobility than the arterial
Super-elevation The transverse inclination to the pavement surface is known as super-elevation or cant or banking.
Time mean speed It is the average of the speed measurements at one point in space over a period of the time. It is the average of spot speed measurements.
Traffic control devices The various aids and devices used to control, regulate and guide traffic are called traffic control devices.
Traffic density It is defined as the number of vehicles that can be accommodated by unit length of road section.
Traffic islands Traffic islands are raised areas constructed within the roadway to establish physical channels through which the vehicular traffic may be guided.
Traffic lane The portion of the carriageway width that is intended for one lane of traffic movement is called traffic lane.
Traffic signal These are used for control of conflicting streams of vehicular and pedestrian traffic in most of towns and cities.
Traffic volume or flow Traffic volume or traffic flow is expressed as the number of vehicles that pass across a given transverse line of the road during unit time.
Travel speed or journey speed It is the effective speed of a vehicle between two points and is obtained by dividing the route length by the total travel time, including the stopped delays.
Vertical clearances Vertical clearance is the height above the highest point of the travelled way to the lowest point of the overhead structure.
Vertical curve A smooth transition between two sloping grade lines; a hill or valley
Warning sign or Danger sign or Cautionary sign This sign warns the traffic of existing potentially hazardous conditions on or adjacent to a highway or street.
Anchor length It is the length of the track that is required to resist the pull exerted by the rail tensor on the rails.
Ashpits Ashpits are provided to collect the ashes falling from the locomotives
Ballast It is a layer of broken stones, gravel, moorum, or any other granular material placed and packed below and around sleepers for distributing load from the sleepers to the formation.
Bearing plates These are used for fixing wooden sleepers to rails
Breathing length It is the length at each end of LWR that is subjected to expansion or contraction on account of temperature variations.
Buffer rails Buffer rails are set of rails provided at the ends of an LWR to allow the expansion or contraction of the breathing length due to temperature variations.
Buffer stops or sneg dead ends Provided at the end of a siding to ensure that the vehicles stop while still on track and do not go off it.
Check rails Checkrails are provided parallel to inner rail sharp curves to reduce the lateral wear on the outer rail.
Coning of wheels The tread of the wheels of a railway vehicle is not made flat, but sloped like a cone in order to enable the vehicle to move smoothly on curves as well as on straight tracks.
Construction gauge It is decided by adding the necessary clearance to the loading guage so that vehicles can move safely at the prescribed speed without any infringement.
Continuous welded rail (CWR) It is a type of LWR that continues through station yards, including points and crossings.
Corrugations of rails Corrugation consists of minute depressions on the surface of rails, varying in shape and size and occurring at regular intervals.
Creep of rail It is defined as the longitudinal movements of the rail with respect to the sleepers.
Crossing A crossing is a device introduced at the junction where two rails cross each other to permit the wheel flange of a railway vehicle to pass from one track to another.
Destressing It is an operation undertaken with or without the use of rail tensors to attain stress-free LWR at a specified rail temperature.
Destressing temperature This is the average rail temperature at the time of the fastening of rails to sleepers after destressing a LWR without the use of rail tensors.
End-hardened rails These are rails with ends that are hardened by oil or water quenching
Fastenings It is used to fix the rail to the sleeper.
Fish plates It holds two rails together in both the horizontal and vertical planes.
Gauge It is defined as minimum distance between inner faces of two rails
Head-hardened rails These are rails with heads that have been hardened by passing them through a thermal treatment plant.
Hogging of rails Rail ends get hogged due to poor maintenance of rail joint
Installation temperature This is the average rail temperature achieved when the rails are being fastened to the sleepers at the time of installation of LWRs.
Loading gauge It represents the maximum width and height to which a rolling stock, namely, a locomotive, coach, or wagon can be built or loaded.
Long welded rail (LWR) Long welded rail is a welded rail in which the central portion does not undergo any longitudinal contraction or expansion due to temperature variations
Mean rail temperature The mean rail temperature for a section is the average of the maximum and minimum rail temperatures recorded for the section.
Points or switch A pair of tongue and stock rails with the necessary connections and fittings forms a switch.
Prevailing rail temperature This is the prevailing temperature of the rail at the time of any operation connected with destressing being carried out.
Rack railways The rack railway system consists of three rails; one extra toothed rail in the middle in addition to two normal rails; this is used in the case of very steep gradients, much steeper than 3%.
Rail temperature This is the temperature of the rail as recorded by an approved rail thermometer at the site.
Rails Rails are the members of the track lain in two parallel lines to provide an unchanging, continuous, and level surface for the movement of trains.
Scabbing of rails Occurs due to the falling patches or chunks of metal from the rail table.
Shelling Shelling is the progressive horizontal separation of metal that occurs on the gauge side, generally at the upper gauge corner.
Short welded rail (SWR) It is a welded rail that contracts and expands throughout its length
Sleepers Sleepers are the transverse ties that are laid to support the rails.
Standard installation temperature This is the installation temperature at which a standard gap of 6 mm is provided for fish plated joints.
Stock rail It is the running rail against which a tongue rail operates
Stress free temperature This is the rail temperature at which the rail is free of thermal stress.
Switch expansion joint (SEJ) It is an expansion joint installed at each end of an LWR to permit the expansion or contraction of the adjoining breathing lengths due to temperature variations
Tilting of rails Rails are tilted at an angle of 1 in 20 to reduce wear and tear on the rails as well as on the tread of the wheels.
Tongue rail or switch rail It is a tapered movable rail, made of high carbon or manganese steel to withstand wear.
Track modulus It is an index of measurement of resistance to deformation. It is defined as the load in kilograms per unit rail length required to produce one unit depression in the rail bottom.
Track or permanent way It is the railroad on which trains run.
Turnout It is an arrangement of points and crossings with lead rails by means of which the rolling stock may be diverted from one track to another.
Wheel burns Caused by slipping of the driving wheel of locomotive on the rail surface.
Yard A yard is a system of tracks laid out to deal with the passengers as well as goods traffic being handled by the railways.
Abutments They are the end supports of the superstructure.
Afflux Due to construction of the bridge there is a contraction in waterway. This results in rise of water level above its normal level while passing under the bridge. This rise is known as afflux
Approaches The approaches are the lengths of the communication route at both ends of the bridge.
Apron It is a layer of concrete, masonry stone, etc. placed like flooring at the entrance or outlet of a culvert to prevent scour.
Arch ridges These are the bridges which produce inclined pressures on supports under vertical loads.
Bridge A structure facilitating a communication route for carrying road traffic or other moving loads over a depression or obstruction such as river, stream, channel, road or railway.
Cantilever bridges Bridges which are more or less fixed at one end and free at the other it can be used for spans varying from 8 metres to 20 metres.
Causeway It is a pucca submersible bridge which allows floods to pass over it. It is provided on less important routes in order to reduce the construction cost of cross drainage structures.
Clear span The clear distance between any two adjacent supports of a bridge is called clear span
Continuous bridges Bridges which continue over two or more spans. They are used for large spans and where unyielding foundations are available.
Culvert When a small stream crosses a road with linear waterway less than about 6 metres, the cross drainage structure so provided is called culvert.
Curtain wall It is a thin wall used as a protection against scouring action of a stream
Deck bridges These are the bridges whose floorings are supported at top of the super structures.
Economic span The span, for which the total cost of bridge structures is minimum is known as economic span.
Effective linear waterway Effective linear waterway is the total width of waterway of the bridge minus the effective width of obstruction.
Effective span The centre to centre distance between any two adjacent supports is called as the effective span of a bridge.
Foot bridge The foot bridge is a bridge exclusively used for carrying pedestrians, cycles and animals.
Free board Free board at any point is the difference between the highest flood level after allowing for afflux, if any, and the formation level of road embankment on the approaches or top level of guide bunds at that point.
Headroom Headroom is the vertical distance between the highest point of a vehicle or vessel and the lowest point of any protruding member of a bridge.
High level bridge or Non-submersible bridge The bridge which does not allow the high flood waters to pass over them.
Length of the bridge The length of a bridge structure will be taken as the overall length measured along the centre line of the bridge from the end to end of the bridge deck
Linear waterway The linear waterway of a bridge shall be the length available in the bridge between extreme edges of a water surface at the highest flood level, measured at right angles to the abutment faces.
Over-Bridges It is a bridge constructed to enable one form of land communication over the other.
Piers They are the intermediate supports of a bridge superstructure and may be of solid or open type.
Rigid frame bridges In these bridges the horizontal deck slab is made monolithic with the vertical abutment walls
Semi-Through bridges These are the bridges whose floorings are supported at some intermediate level of the superstructures.
Simple bridges They include all beam, girder or truss bridges supported at both ends only. It is suitable for spans up to 8 metres.
Skew bridges These bridges which are not at right angles to the axis of the river.
Spur They are the structures built transverse to river flow extending from the bank into the river.
Square bridges These are the bridges at right angles to the axis of the river.
Submersible bridge A submersible bridge is a structure which allows flood water to pass over bridge submerging the communication route.
Suspension bridges These are the bridges suspended on cables anchored at ends.
Through bridges These are the bridges whose floorings are supported or suspended at the bottom of the superstructures.
Under-Bridges It is a bridge constructed to enable a road to pass under another work or obstruction.
Viaduct It is a long continuous structure which carries a road or railways like a bridge over a dry valley composed of series of spans over trestle bents instead of solid piers.
Wing walls These are the walls provided at both ends of the abutments to retain the earth filling of the approach road.
Beam Beam of a vessel means the width of vessel.
Bilge block Provide lateral stability to the ships resting on the floor of dry dock.
Breakwater A protective barrier constructed from shore towards the sea to enclose harbor and to keep harbor water undisturbed, is called break water.
Clapotis The water waves are reflected back after acting on a vertical wall, cliff or steep beach. These reflected waves collide back with the incoming incident waves and forms a standing wave known as clapotis.
Crest The highest point of a wave is called crest.
Currents Currents are essentially a horizontal movement of water.
Dead weight tonnage It is the weight of cargo, fuel, and stores a ship carries when loaded to the plimsoll mark. It represents the carrying capacity of the ship.
Displacement load It is the weight of the ship and its contents when fully loaded with cargo to the plimsoll mark or load line painted on the hull of the ship. It is generally in tonne.
Displacement tonnage It is the actual weight of the vessel or the weight of water displaced when afloat and may be either loaded or light.
Dolphins Dolphins are the marine structures located at the entrance of a locked basin or alongside a pier or wharf.
Draft It is the depth of the keel of the ships below water level for the particular condition of loading. It is the depth to which vessel rests in water when fully loaded.
Dredging Dredging is the technique and operation of removing material from the sea bed, a river bed, a lake etc. and disposal in stream or onto the shore.
Dry dock A dry dock is a chamber having walls, floor and a gate. They are primarily provided for maintenance, repairs and construction of ships.
Entrance channel This is the water area through which the ships enter the harbor.
Fenders Fenders are the horizontal or vertical wooden members or rubber strips fastened to the deck or face of the dock. They absorb the impact of the ship and protect them from damaging.
Fetch The straight line stretch of open water available for wave growth without the interruption of land is fetch.
Floating buoys They are small sized floating structures, generally in form of cylindrical cans and drums. They are employed for demarcations at entrances, approach channel boundaries etc.
Free port It is an isolated, enclosed and policed area in or adjacent to a port of entry. It is an area within which goods may be landed, stored, mixed, blended, repacked, manufactured and reshipped without payment of duties and without intervention of the custom officials.
Freight tonnage or cargo tonnage It forms the basis of freight charge. It is a commercial expression. This tonnage may be measured by either volume or weight.
Gross tonnage It represents carrying capacity in volume measurement. It is the entire internal cubic capacity of a ship.
Harbour It is a water area partly enclosed and so protected from storms as to provide safe and suitable accommodation for ships or vessels seeking refuge, supplies, refueling, repairs, or transfer of cargo.
Inland waterways Inland waterways consist of water transportation on rivers, lakes and canals within the main land
Jetty A solid platform constructed perpendicular to the shoreline or breakwater is known as jetty.
Keel block The keel block comprises of hard wood blocks of very large dimensions. These blocks are so arranged in and along the center line of dry dock floor so as to afford sufficient bearing to the ship’s keel without being crushed.
Light house Lighthouse are tall tower structures built of masonry or reinforced concrete. A marine beacon light is provided on the top of the tower.
Light ships In certain locations where it is not practical to build light houses, small ships are used for navigational purpose called light ships.
Lock A lock is a chamber having open ends, generally rectangular in plan for the transfer of ships from one water pool to another at different elevations.
Neap tides This is the lowest tide of the month. It occurs when the lines connecting the earth with the sun and the moon form right angle. In this case the actions of the moon and sun are subtractive.
Net tonnage It is the gross tonnage less the space provided for the crew, machinery, engine room, and fuel.
Oceanic waterways Oceanic waterways are concerned with the conveyance of people and goods primarily across the ocean between continents or islands.
Pier These are solid platforms which project into the water. Berthing of ships is possible on both sides.
Plimsoll mark or Load line It is the depth under the maritime laws to which a ship may be loaded in different bodies of water during various seasons of the year.
Port A port is an area where marine terminal facilities are provided. These facilities consist of wharves at which ships berth while loading or unloading cargo, transit sheds and other storage areas where ships may discharge incoming cargo and warehouses where goods may be stored for longer periods while awaiting distribution or sailing. The terminal is served by rail, road or inland waterway connections.
Port hand The buoys on the right hand side of the ship approaching the harbour are called port hand.
Port of entry This is a designated location where foreign citizens and foreign goods are cleared through a custom house.
Quay This is also a dock parallel to the shore. This is a solid type of structure providing berthing on one side and retaining the earth on the other.
Sheltered basin The area protected by shore and breakwaters is called sheltered basin.
Spring tides or Moon tides or Tides at full moon These are the highest tides which occur at intervals of half a lunar month. They occur when the generating forces of the moon and sun are additives. This happens when sun, moon and earth fall in line.
Star board hand The buoys on the left hand side of the ship approaching the harbour are called star board hand.
Tidal range This is the difference in height between high water and low water at a tidal station.
Tides Tides are the periodic rise and fall of ocean waters.
Transit sheds These are stores for a short period of time for cargo awaiting loading or distribution after being unloaded from ships.
Trestle A trestle is a structure connecting a main berthing pier to provide access to the shore.
Trough The lowest point of a wave is called trough.
Turning basin The water area which is required for manoeuvering the ships after they enter the harbour for going to or leaving a berth is called turning basin.
Warehouses They are stores where goods may be stored for danger periods while awaiting sailing.
Water waves The water waves are generated by transfer of energy from air moving over the water surface.
Wave height The vertical distance from the crest to the trough is called wave height (H).
Wave length The distance between two successive crests is called wave length (L).
Wave period The time taken for a wave to travel a distance of one wave length is called wave period (T).
Wet dock When there are variation in tidal level, an enclosed basin is provided where in a number of ships can be berthed.
Wharf This is a docking platform constructed parallel to the shoreline providing berthing facilities on one side only.
Wind Wind can be defined as air in motion.
Wind rose diagram Direction, duration and intensity of wind can be graphically represented by a diagram known as Wind Rose.
Aerodrome A defined area on land or water intended to be used either wholly or in part for the arrival, departure and surface movement of aircraft.
Aeroplane A power driven heavier than aircraft which derives its lift in air through aerodynamic reactions on its surfaces.
Aileron It is a hinged flap which is fixed in the trailing edge of the wing. It serves as a lateral control to the aircraft about its longitudinal axis.
Air traffic control tower It is a tower from which air traffic is controlled by directing and supervising the arriving and departing aircrafts.
Aircraft An aircraft is a general term which is used to mean any machine which can derive support in the atmosphere from the reactions of the air and is intended for aerial navigation.
Airfield The landing area including taxiways, runways and holding aprons.
Airport Any aerodrome at which permanent custom and immigration facilities are provided
Airport capacity The maximum number of aircraft operations that can take place in an hour from an airport. A landing or take off operation s counted as one operation.
Airside The movement area of an airport, adjacent terrain and buildings or portions thereof, access to which is controlled.
Airstrip A long and narrow strip suitable for landing and takeoff operations of aircrafts.
Approach area The approach area or approach zone indicates the wide area on either side of a particular runway up to a certain distance which is kept clear of any obstructions.
Approach surface The imaginary inclined plane representing the obstruction clearance line and located directly above the approach area.
Apron A defined area on land intended to accommodate aircraft for purposes of loading or unloading passengers, cargo, mail, fueling, parking or maintenance.
Blast pads The specially designed shoulders provided at the take-off ends of the runway and along taxiway are known as blast pads. They protect the ground from erosion due to high velocity of the jet exhaust.
Calm period The duration of time in which wind velocity is calm generally less than 6 Kmph.
Elevator It is hinged flap to the rear frame member on tail of an aircraft. It controls pitching or up and down movement of the aircraft.
Flaps Flaps at the rear end of wings are similar to ailerons. They are used as air brakes when turned down under the wings to provide powerful resistance causing quick drop in the flying speed.
Fuselage The fuselage is the main body of the aircraft. It consists of pilot cockpit, space for passengers, cargo, mail and tail.
Gate position The space allotted to an aircraft parking at a loading apron.
Hanger Large sheds erected at airports for parking, servicing and repairing of aircrafts.
Heliport An area for landing and take-off for helicopters
Holding apron It is designated portion adjacent to the end of runways to allow check of aircraft instruments, and engine operation prior to take-off and to enable the aircrafts to wait for take-off clearance.
Instrumental flight rules (IFR) IFR conditions exist, when the visibility is lower than the limit prescribed for aircraft under VFR. Rigid traffic control has to be exercised under IFR condition.
Rudder A vertical aerofoil pivoted from the tail of an aircraft, for controlling movement about the vertical axis
Threshold It is the starting point of the runway.
Visual flight rules (VFR) If VFR conditions prevail, the air traffic control during the route is practically not required, since the pilots can maintain the desired separation by visual aids.
Accessibility It is defined as access to activities.
Central business district (CBD) The CBD is the commercial and business centre of the city.
Cordon line The imaginary line representing the boundary of the study area.
Destination It is defined as the ending point of any trip.
Home based trips Home based trips are those having one end of the trip (either origin or destination) at the home of the person making the trip.
Inter-zonal trips The trips starting and ending in the different zone are called intra-zonal trips.
Intra-zonal trips The trips starting and ending in the same zone are called intra-zonal trips.
Mobility It is defined as access to transportation.
Modal split Modal split is the process of separating person-trips by the mode of travel. It is usually expressed as a fraction, ratio or percentage of the total number of trips.
Non-home based trips Non-home based trips are those having neither end at the home of the person making the trip.
Origin It is defined as the starting point of any trip.
Points Points are locations at the beginning and end of each segment, at which traffic enters leaves, or crosses the facility.
Screen line The line which divides the study area in to zones.
Segment Segments are stretches of a facility in which the traffic demand and capacity conditions are relatively constant.
Study area The area for which transportation facilities are to be planned and is studied in greater detail is called study area.
Through trips The trips having origin and destination both out of the study area are called through trips.
Traffic assignment Traffic assignment is the process wherein the trip interchanges are allocated to different parts of the network forming the transportation system.
Transport The act to move from one place to another.
Transport corridor A corridor is a set of essentially parallel and competing facilities and modes with cross-connectors that serve trips between two designated points.
Transportation The process or means for moving from one place to another.
Travel demand It is the demand for trips that exists in any area.
Trip A trip is a one way process by motorized/non-motorized mode of transport, having two trip ends, an origin and destination.
Trip distribution The number of trips generated in every zone of the area under the study has to be apportioned to the various zones to which these trips are attracted. The process of distributing/apportioning generated trips is called trip distribution.
Trip generation It is general term used in the transportation planning process to cover the field of calculating the number of trip ends in a given area.
Urbanization It is an index of transformation from traditional rural economies to modern industrial one
Zones The defined study area is sub-divided into smaller area called zones.
Blasting Blasting is the operation performed to loosen rock so that it may be excavated or removed from its existing position.
Firm ground The ground in which roofs can remain unsupported for few minutes and side walls can stand unsupported for an hour or two, like firm clays, dry earth etc.
Mucking Mucking is the operation of removing excavated material and dumping it at suitable place.
Running ground Ground which will require support immediately after excavation such as dry sand gravel or other cohesion less material.
Self-supporting ground This is ground, which can remain unsupported for short length 1.5 to 4 metre, for short periods like sandstones, cemented sands etc.
Shafts Shafts are vertical wells or passages sunk along the line of a tunnel at one or more points, between the entrances, to permit the tunnel excavation to be attacked at several points at the same time. Each shaft opens two additional faces to work.
Soft ground This is type of ground in which roof requires instant support after excavation, while side walls can remain standing without support for few minutes, e.g., soft earth, or clayey soils.
Tunnel A tunnel is an engineering structure, artificial gallery, passage or roadway beneath the ground, under the bed of a stream, or through a hill or mountain.
ANALYSIS OF RATES The process of determining the rate per unit of an item of work is termed as the analysis of rates.
APPROXIMATE ESTIMATE The approximate estimate consists of multiplying the number of units in a proposed structure by the known cost of a similar units, in a similar existing structure.
CAPITALIZED VALUE The capitalized value of property is the amount of a money, whose annual interest at the highest prevailing rate of interest will be equal to the net income arising from the property.
CONDITIONS OF CONTRACT The conditions or clauses pertaining to the work as a whole are written in a separate contract document.
CONTRACT A contract is an agreement under which the contractor and the department are bound by the terms and conditions of the contract.
DEPRECIATION Decrease or loss in the value of a property due to structural deterioration, use, life, wear and tear, decay and obsolescence.
DETAILED ESTIMATE Detailed estimate is an accurate estimate and consists of working out the quantities of each item of work and then working out the cost.
EARNEST MONEY The amount to be deposited by the contractor, while submitting the tender form.
ESTIMATING Estimating is the technique of determining the probable cost of construction of a structure, by calculating the quantities of different items of work and then calculating the cost at suitable rates.
FREE HOLD PROPERTY The owner is in absolute possession of the property and the owner can do whatever he likes to do with such property.
GROSS INCOME The total amount of revenue received from a property during a year.
LEASE HOLD PROPERTY It indicates the physical possession of the property and the use of such property may be allowed by the original owner (lessor) as per lease document.
LIQUIDATED DAMAGES Liquidated damages is an amount of compensation payable by a contractor to the owner due to delayed completion of construction.
MARKET VALUE Market Value is the estimated amount for which a property should exchange on the date of valuation between a willing buyer and a willing seller in an arm’s-length transaction after proper marketing wherein the parties had each acted knowledgeably, prudently, and without compulsion. (Alternative name: Fair Market Value)
NET INCOME The net income from a property represents an amount left at the end of the year after deducting all usual outgoings.
OBSOLESCENCE The value of a property becomes less by becoming out of date in style, in structure, in design, etc.
OUT-TURN OF WORK The capacity of doing work by an artisan, in the form of quantity of work per day.
QUANTITY SURVEY Quantity survey is a list or schedule of quantities of all possible items of work required for construction of any structure.
RESIDUAL LAND VALUE The sum of money available for the purchase of land, calculated from the value of the completed development minus the cost of development.
SALVAGE VALUE It is the value of the property or commodity at the end of the utility period without being dismantled.
SCHEDULE OF RATES (SOR) The schedule of rate consists of the rates of different items of works.
SCRAP VALUE Scrap value is the value of dismantled materials.
SECURITY DEPOSIT The selected contractor has to deposit about 2.5 to 5 % of the tendered amount with the owner.
SINKING FUND The fund which is gradually accumulated by way of periodic or annual deposit for the replacement or reconstruction of the building at the end of its useful life.
SPECIFICATION The specification provides detailed description of a particular item of work regarding the quality of materials used and workmanship to be maintained during the execution of work.
TENDER A tender is an offer in writing to execute some specified work at certain rates, within a specified time under certain terms and conditions of contract and agreement, between the contractor and the owner.
TERMINAL CAPITALISED VALUE The resale value of a property as calculated using a Terminal Capitalisation Rate. (Alternative names: Terminal Sale Value, Capital Value)
VALUATION The valuation is the technique of determining the value of the property. The property may be a building, a factory, various types of engineering structures, land, etc.
VOUCHERS The term voucher is used to mean a legal receipt with details, for proof against the payment made and is kept in record.
WORK ABSTRACT Work abstract is a monthly account of all transactions relating to work in respect to cash, stock and other charges.
YEAR’S PURCHASE Year’s purchase can be defined as the capital sum required to be invested in order to receive an annuity (annual income) of Re. 1.00 at certain rate of interest.
Amenities Means roads, streets, open spaces, parks, recreational grounds, playgrounds, gardens, water supply, electric supply, street lighting, drainage, sewerage, public works and other utilities, communication network, surface and convenience.
Basement Or Cellar Shall mean the lower storey of a building having at least half of the clear floor height of the basement or cellar below average ground level.
Building Line Means the line up to which the plinth of a building adjoining a street or an extension of a street or on a future street may lawfully extend and includes the lines prescribed, in any T.P. scheme and/or Development Plan.
Built-Up Area Means the area covered by a building on all floors including cantilevered portion, if any, but except the areas excluded specifically under these Regulations.
Combined Footing A long footing supporting a continuous wall or two or more columns in a row.
Corridor Means a common passage or circulation space including a common entrance hall.
Courtyard Means a space permanently open to the sky within the site around a structure and paved/concrete.
Detached Building Means a building with walls and roofs independent of any other building and with open spaces on all sides.
Dwelling Unit Means a shelter consisting of residential accommodation for one family. Provided that the minimum accommodation in a dwelling unit shall be one room of minimum carpet area of 9 Sq.Mts. with a minimum side of 2.4 Mts. and a w.c.
Floor Area Means Built up area excluding area of walls.
Floor Space Index (F.S.I.) Means quotient of the ratio of the combined gross floor area of the all floors including areas of all walls, except areas specifically exempted under these Regulations, to the total area of the plot / building unit. Floor Space Index = Total floor area including walls of all floors / (Plot Area / Building Unit.) Provided that the following shall not be counted towards computation of F.S.I. (i) Parking spaces without any enclosures and partitions of any kind, with clear height of 2.6 Mts. and in case of slabs with beams, height should not exceeds 2.8 Mts. (ii) Spaces of hollow plinth with maximum clear height of 2.8 Mts. including beams in residential buildings only (not even in mixed development) at ground level without any enclosures/walls and partitions in any form. (iii) Interior open spaces and ducts required under these Regulations. (iv) Basement exclusively used for required parking with maximum clear height of 2.6 Mts. excluding beams. (v) Security Cabin upto 4 Sq.Mts. (vi) Weather shed up to 0.60 mt width. (vii) Stair case with maximum intermediate landing width equal to the width of stair, maximum landing width at floor level shall be twice the width of stair. (viii) lift, lift well with lift cabin, stair cabin, and water tan(ix) Open air space under this regulation in City Area “A” and “B” of Rajkot Mun. Corpn. (x) Electric room as specified by G.E.B.
Gamtal Shall mean all land may have been included by the Govt./Collector within the site of village, Town or city on or before the date of declaration of intention to make a Town Planning Scheme or publication of Draft Development Plan but shall not include any such other land which may thereafter be included within the site of any village by the Govt./Collector under the provision of Land Revenue Code, including City area “A” and City area “B” as shown in Development Plan Proposals.
Gulley A small grating and inlet to a drain to receive rainwater and wastewater from sinks, baths or basins.
High-Rise Building Shall mean building other than mentioned in “Low Rise Building ” provided the maximum permissible height shall not exceed 40 Mts.
Joist A horizontal wooden, steel or precast concrete beam directly supporting a floor.
Lintel Lintels are members supporting a wall over window or door openings.
Loft Shall mean an intermediate floor between two floor with a maximum height of 1.2 Mts. and which is constructed and adopted for storage purpose. The loft if provided in a room shall not cover more than 30% of the floor area of the room.
Low Rise Building Shall mean a building having height up to 15.00 Mts. and having ground floor plus three floors. However hollow plinth up to 2.8 Mts. and parapet on terrace up to 1.5 Mts. shall not be counted.
Margin Shall mean space fully open to sky provided at the plot level from the edge of the building wherein built-up area shall not be permitted except specifically permitted projections under this regulation.
Mezzanine Floor Shall mean an intermediate floor between two floors overhanging or overlooking a floor beneath. Mezzanine floor shall not have separate external entry.
Ots Means an area forming an integral part of the plot, left permanently open to sky.
Parapet Means a low wall or railing built along the edge of roof of a floor.
Plinth Plinth shall mean the portion of the external wall between the level of the street and the level of the storey first above the street.
Plinth Area Means the built-up covered area measured at the floor level of the basement or of any storey.
Porch Means a covered surface supported on pillars or otherwise for the purpose of a pedestrian or vehicular approach to a building.
Stair Cover Means a structure with a covering roof over a staircase and its landing built to enclose only the stairs for the purpose of providing protection from the weather, and not to be used for human habitation.
Tenement Means an independent dwelling unit with a kitchen, or a cooking space.
Warehouse Or Godown Mean a building the whole or a substantial part of which is used orintended to be used for the storage of goods whether for storing or for sale or for any similar purpose. It is neither a domestic nor a public building, nor merely a shop if so used not a store attached to and used for the proper functioning of a shop.
Water Closet (W.C) Means a privy with an arrangement for flushing the pan with water, but does not include a bathroom.
Zone Aland use restriction within a designated boundary as part of a master plan for development. Restrictions as bto th type, size, and purpose of land uses differ dependent on whether it is located within a residential zone, industrial zone or commercial zone.
Asphalt  Asphalt is a material that is widely used in construction of roads. It is obtained by petroleum processing and is brown to black in color.
Bulldozer Bulldozer is a heavy driver operated machine used for grading and clearing lands. It is fitted with dozer blade and is usually mounted on tracks.
Caisson Caisson is a structure, which is sunk through ground or water for the purpose of excavation and placing the foundation at the prescribed depth and subsequently it become an integral part of the foundation.
Cast in situ piles This type of concrete pile, a bore is dug into the ground by inserting casing. The bore is then filled with cement concrete, after placing reinforcement, if any.
Cement grouting Cement is suitable for injection, as strengthening is required in addition to a reduction in the permeability of soil or rock strata.
Centering Centering is the temporary structure required to support brick, stone or concrete work of arch, dome etc.
Chemical consolidation The chemical injection process or chemical consolidation is applicable to sandy gravels and sand of finest grading.
Clay grouting Injection of bitumen emulsion or slurries of clay or bentonite, with some chemicals can be used in ground where the grading is too fine for cement grouting and in gravels where reduction in permeability is required without the need for any strengthening of the ground.
Coffer Dam Coffer dam is a temporary structure which is built in a river, lake etc.to remove water from an area and make it possible to carry on the construction work under reasonably dry condition.
Compactors Machineries  Used for reducing the size of the waste materials through compaction is called as compactors. There are different types of compactors like soil compactors, asphalt compactors, plate compactors, vibratory plate compactors, etc
Conveyor Belt Conveyor belts are the belts that are used for moving industrial and agricultural products. It consists of two pulleys with continuous loop of materials that rotates about them.
Crawlers Crawler is a track on which vehicles are mounted. Crawler helps the vehicle to operate in tough geographical condition.
Diaphragm wall A wall constructed in situ by special trenching method to act as cut off wall or serve as a structural member is called diaphragm wall.
Dumpers  Dumper is a small vehicle usually diesel powered usually used to carry heavy materials to various construction sites like roads, buildings, ports etc.
Earth fill cofferdam The cofferdams formed by an embankment or dyke of earth are suitable for rivers or streams having shallow depth of water about 1.2 to 1.5 m., with low velocity of flow.
Earth Moving Machines  Earth moving machines are those heavy and light machines that are used for various civil engineering and construction projects. The popular earth moving machines are excavators, loaders, cranes, bulldozers etc. 
End bearing piles This type of piles derive most of their load carrying capacity from the resistance of the stratum at the toe of piles, which is known as the end bearing piles.
Excavators  Excavators are multi usage vehicles that are used for excavating, digging, loading of materials and small demolition. It has a replaceable buckets which can be replaced by auger, grapples, and breakers are generally mounted on the track. 
Fork Lift  Fork lift is an industrial vehicle which is mainly applied for lifting and moving materials through steel forks which is inserted under the loads. Forklift moves the loads which are stored on pallets.
Formwork It is a temporary structure used as a module for the structure in which concrete is placed and in which it is hardened and gains sufficient strength for self-supporting.
Friction piles The piles obtain the greater part of their load carrying capacity by skin friction; which is known as the friction piles.
Gantry Cranes Gantry cranes are heavy machines that are used for moving heavy loads. Gantry cranes can be of different types like single girder, double girder, double leg, single leg, and cantilever styles for indoor or outdoor service.
Girder A girder is a horizontal structure that are aligned in such a fashion as to support vertical loads. 
Hoist  Hoist is a device normally attached with cranes and is used for raising and lowering of heavy or complex objects. Normally it is attached with cranes.
Loaders Loaders are those machines which are either mounted on wheel or track and use a wide tilting bucket on the end of movable arms to lift and move materials
Material Handling Machines  Machines used for transporting and storage of materials both within the jobsite and outside, is called as material handler. The popular examples of material handlers are cranes, trucks, loaders, dumpers, etc. 
Monoliths The monoliths consists of multiple wells, which are sunk together.
Non-load bearing piles (sheet piles) This type of piles are used as the separating members below ground level and they are generally not designed to take any vertical load.
Pile Foundation It is that type of deep foundation in which the loads are taken to a low level by means of vertical members which may be of timber, concrete or steel.
Pre-cast piles Pre-cast piles are the reinforcement concrete piles, which are cast and cured in casting yard and then transported to the site and driven into ground with the help of divers.
Rock fill cofferdam The construction of rock fill cofferdam is similar to earth fill dams, but the rocks have stability and hence can be constructed with steeper slopes than earth fill dams. They can be used for 3.0m
Scaffolding  A temporary framework which is used to support people and material for the construction of large structures is called as scaffolding. It is either made up of metal pipes or bamboo. It helps the workers to gain access to high levels safely. 
Scrapers  Scrapers are those mechanical equipments which are used for digging, excavating and hauling of materials.
Shear wall It is a vertical plate like RC wall
Shuttering Street for collecting and distributing traffic from and to local streets and also for providing access to arterial streets.
Slip formwork Slip form is a special technique of placing concrete for chimneys, silos and pavement construction. It is suitable for uniform shape structure.
Storey drift The drift in a storey is computed as a difference of deflection of the floors at the top and bottom of the storey under consideration.
Stripping The operation of removing the formwork is known as stripping.
Tilting of caisson Sometimes a caisson sinks more on one side than the other. This is known as tilting of caisson.
Trenchers Trenchers are the machines which are responsible for digging trenches. With attachments like backhoes, saws and reel carriers, trenchers are responsible for landscaping, irrigation, plumbing and underground utility construction etc.
Under reamed piles These piles are bored cast in situ concrete piles having one or more bulbs formed by under-reaming tool, at its lower portion so its provide as ideal solution to foundation in black cotton soil.
Vibro-floatation In Vibro-floatation, heavy vibrators are inserted into loose granular soils and then withdrawn leaving a column of compacted soil in the ground.
Well Point A well point is a perforated pipe 5 to 8 cm in diameter and about 1 m long covered by a cylindrical wire gauge screen known as strainer.
Abiotic components The non-living components of an ecosystem or the environment, such as the natural resources and the atmospheric conditions.
Abyssal zone The cold and dark zone at the bottom of the ocean.
Acid rain Rain, mist, or snow formed when atmospheric water droplets combine with a range of man-made chemical air pollutants.
Algal bloom A population explosion of some pigmented marine algae seen as an explosion of colour on the ocean.
Ambient Air Quality Standards (AAQS) Standards specified for the levels of outdoor air quality for protecting public health, vegetation, and property.
Autotrophs (Producers) All organisms at the first trophic level (self-feeding organisms)
Background extinction The gradual disappearance of species due to changes in local environmental conditions.
Bathyal zone The dimly lit middle level zone in the ocean, roughly between 200 m and 1500 m in depth.
Benthos Bottom-dwellers adapted to living on the floor of the water body.
Biodiversity or Biological diversity The numbers, variety, and vari­ability of living organisms and ecosystems.
Biogeochemical cycle A cycle in which nitrogen, carbon, and other inorganic elements of the soil, atmosphere, etc., are converted into the organic substances of animals or plants and then released back into the environment.
Biological extinction The complete disappearance of a species. It is an irreversible loss with not a single member of the extinct species being found on earth.
Bioremediation The use of bacteria and other microorganisms to clean up the soil.
Biosphere That portion of the planet and its environment, which can support life. The biosphere includes most of the hydrosphere, parts of the lower atmosphere and the upper lithosphere.
Biotic components The living components of an ecosystem or the environment.
Carnivores or Secondary Consumers Organisms that feed on other consumers.
Cell The basic unit of life in an organism.
Cell Respiration A process (reverse of photosynthesis) in which organisms convert food and oxygen into energy and carbon dioxide.
Check dam or johad A small structure of earth and stones that blocks the path of any flow of water and helps recharge the groundwater.
Chemosynthesis The process in which certain bacteria in the ocean act as producers using geothermal energy.
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) A category of chemicals used as refrigerants or aerosol propellants. When they break apart in the atmosphere, they release chlorine atoms, which cause ozone depletion.
Climate change A term used to describe short and long-term effects on the earth's climate as a result of human activities such as the burning of fossil fuels.
Climax ecosystem A stage in the evolution of an ecosystem, at which all the species are in dynamic equilibrium among themselves as also with the environment.
Coastal zone Area extending from the high tide mark on land to the edge of the continental shelf, where there is a sharp increase in the depth of water.
Community of populations The group of all the populations of different species living in a geographical area.
Coniferous forest A type of forest with an abundance of coniferous trees like spruce, fir, pine, and hemlock.
Consumers Organisms that feed on producers or other organisms.
Continental shelf The submerged part of a continent at the edge of the coastal zone, where there is a sharp increase in the depth of water.
Coral reefs Colorful protective crust of limestone formed by colonies of tiny organisms called polyps.
Crude birth rate The number of live births per 1000 people in a population in a given year.
Crude death rate The number of deaths per 1000 people in a population in a given year.
DDT (Dichloro-diphenol-trichloroethane) An insecticide that protects crops and human beings from insects, but is very harmful to organisms.
Decibel A unit for measuring the intensity of sound.
Decomposers Organisms like fungi and bacteria that break down dead organic material and then eat them.
Denitrification Conversion of nitrates and nitrites into nitrogen.
Desertification Land degradation in arid and semi-arid areas caused by human activities and climatic changes.
Detrivores Organisms that feed on dead organic matter.
Dioxins Chemical compounds that are formed when we bum waste, plastics, coal, or cigarettes. They are highly toxic to humans and animals.
Ecological footprint It is the area of the earth needed to sustain indefinitely the life of an entity (a person, a city, or a country). Thus it measures how much of a burden an entity is on this planet.
Ecological niche All the physical, chemical, and biological factors that a species needs in order to live and reproduce.
Ecological pyramid A picture that shows producers and the three types of consumers in food chains as different levels of a pyramid.
Ecological sanitation (EcoSan) A sustainable closed loop sanitation system that uses dry composting toilets.
Ecology The science that studies the relationships between living things and their environment.
Ecosystem service The ecological service provided by an ecosystem such as the maintenance of the biogeochemical cycles, modification of climate, waste removal and detoxification, and control of pests and diseases.
Ecosystem A community of living organisms (populations of species) interacting with one another and with the non-living physical and chemical environment. Or A living community of plants and animals sharing an environment with non-living elements such as Climate and soil.
Ecotone The boundary zone between two ecosystems.
Edge effect The presence of rich and unique biological diversity found in an ecotone.
Environment The natural world in which people, animals, and plants live.
Environmental pollution The contamination of the earth's environment with materials that interfere with human health, the quality' of life, or the natural functioning of ecosystems.
Environmental Science The systematic and scientific study of our environment and our r61e in it. It integrates knowledge from the pure sciences, ecology, engineering, .management, and (to some extent) the social sciences.
Environmental Studies The branch of study concerned with environ­mental issues. It has a broader coverage than environmental science and includes the social aspects of the environment.
Estuary The wide part of a river where it flows into the sea.
Euphotic zone The upper part of the ocean, where there is enough light for photosynthesis.
Eutrophication The enrichment of a standing water body by nutrients such as phosphorus and nitrogen.
E-waste Electronic waste that results from discarded devices like computers, televisions, telephones, and music systems.
Exponential growth The growth of a quantity with time in such a way that the curve is relatively flat in the beginning, but becomes steeper and steeper with time.
Ex-situ conservation Conservation of biodiversity and wildlife in artificial settings outside the natural habitats of the species.
Extractive reserve Protected forests in which local communities are allowed to harvest non-timber products in ways that do not harm the forest.
Fluorosis An ailment caused by the excess intake of fluoride.
Food chain A sequence of species in which each is the food for the next in the chain.
Food web An interconnected set of food chains.
Fossil fuels Fuels like coal, natural gas, and oil formed millions of years ago from dead plants.
Fuel cell An electrochemical unit that bums hydrogen to produce electricity.
Global warming Warming of the earth's atmosphere due to an abnormal increase in the concentration of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide.
Grasslands Regions where the average annual precipitation is high enough for grass and a few trees to grow.
Greenhouse effect The insulating effect of greenhouse gases that keeps the earth's temperature warmer than it would be otherwise.
Greenhouse gas A gas like carbon dioxide that surrounds the earth and prevents some of the sun's heat from being reflected back.
Habitat The area in which a species is biologically adapted to live.
Heap-leach mining A gold mining process, in which streams of cyanide are poured over huge piles of low-grade ore to extract the metal.
Herbivores or Primary Consumers Organisms that feed directly on producers.
Heterotrophs (Consumers) All organisms that must consume organic matter for getting energy and for building their bodies.
Hubbert Curve A curve proposed by the geophysicist M.King Hubbert that describes the pattern of oil availability in a field over time.
Hydrosphere The layer of the earth that consists of the liquid water, ice, and water vapour.
Idea of Progress The belief that humankind would move on an unending path of better material conditions and a better life through economic and industrial development, exploiting natural resources.
In-situ conservation Conservation of biodiversity by protecting natural areas.
Joint Forest Management Sustainable management of forests involv­ing local communities in the planning and execution of the conservation programmed.
Kyoto Protocol An international agreement to cut greenhouse gas emissions.
Lithosphere The earth's upper crust containing fossil fuels and minerals.
Malthusian Theory of Population Theory on growth of human popu­lation enunciated by the British economist and demographer Thomas Robert Malthus. It predicted that human population would outgrow the capacity of land to produce food and that famine, plagues, natural disasters, and wars would then control the population.
Mangroves Unique salt-tolerant trees that grow in the coastal zone.
Mass extinction Permanent loss of large numbers of species over a relatively short period of geological time.
Montreal Protocol An international agreement to replace ozone­ depleting substances with safer ones.
Nekton The strong swimmers of the ocean including all the larger organisms like fishes, turtles and whales.
Nitrification Conversion of nitrogen into nitrate.
Nitrogen fixation Conversion of nitrogen into a usable form such as nitrate, ammonia, and urea.
Non-renewable resource A natural resource that is limited in availability, cannot be replaced, and will eventually run out.
Old-growth forest Forests that have not been seriously disturbed by human activities or natural disasters for several hundred years or more.
Omnivores Organisms that feed on plants as well as animals.
Organism Any living thing - an animal, a plant, or a microbe.
Ozone layer A layer of ozone that exists in the upper atmosphere or stratosphere, between 10 and 50 km above the Earth.
PCBs (Polychlorinated biphenyls) Group of widely-used, persistent and toxic chemical compounds.
Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) A group of persistent, toxic chemicals that can accumulate in organisms and can contaminate sites far removed from their source.
Photochemical smog A form of outdoor air pollution formed by the chemical reactions between sunlight, unburnt hydrocarbons, ozone, and other pollutants.
Photosynthesis The process in which producers (green plants) take in carbon dioxide from the atmosphere,’ water from the soil and energy from the sun to make their own food.
Photovoltaic cell A device that converts solar energy directly into electricity.
Phytoremediation The use of plants whose roots absorb pollutants and store them in their stems and leaves.
Phytoplankton 'Photosynthetic producers forming the basis of the ocean's food Web.
Plankton The free-floating microorganisms of the ocean. Plantations Managed forests of commercially valuable trees.
Polyp Tiny organism that forms the coral.
Population growth rate The annual percentage growth in population.
Population of a species The members of a certain species that live within a given area.
Precipitation All the forms in which water comes down on earth, including rain, snow, and hailstorm.
Primary air pollutants Harmful chemicals that are released directly from a source into the atmosphere.
Primary ecological succession The orderly process of transition from one biotic community to another during the evolution of an ecosystem.
Producers Green plants that are the primary source of food in the world. They make food through photosynthesis.
Red tide See algal bloom
Renewable energy source An energy source that is replenished by natural processes and hence can be used indefinitely.
Renewable resource A natural resource that can be replaced, replenished, or restored.
Reverse Osmosis (RO) Purifying water by forcing it through a semi­-permeable membrane.
Sacred grove A forest patch considered sacred and protected by the local community.
Savanna Tropical grasslands with widely scattered clumps of low trees. They are marked by low rainfall and prolonged dry periods.
Secondary air pollutants Harmful chemicals produced from chemical reactions involving the primary pollutants.
Second-growth forest A forest that results from secondary ecological succession that takes place when forests are cleared and then left undisturbed for long periods of time.
Sentinel species Species that are very sensitive indicators of environ­mental problems.
Seventh Generation Principle Being cautious while taking decisions in a community by considering the effects of each decision on the next seven generations.
Sludge The toxic material left behind after the treatment of sewage.
Smog A form of outdoor pollution that is localized in urban areas, where it reduces visibility. The term was originally used to describe a combination of smoke, fog, and chemical pollutants that poisoned the air in industrialized cities.
Social forestry The planting of trees, often with the involvement of local communities, on unused land and wasteland.
Species A species is a set of organisms that resemble one another in appearance and behavior. The organisms in a species are potentially capable of reproducing naturally among themselves.
Sustainable forest management The use of the world's forests in such a way that that they continue to provide resources now without depriving future generations of their needs.
Temperate forest A type of forest with seasonal variations in climate, freezing in winter, and warm and humid in summer.
Tertiary Consumers Organisms that feed on other carnivores.
Trophic Level The specific feeding stage of an organism, producers being at the first level, and consumers at the higher levels.
Tundra The forests in the Arctic. They occur in the extreme northern latitudes where the snow melts seasonally.
Waste Any materials that is not needed by the owner, producer, or processor.
Wetlands Land surfaces covered or saturated with water for a part or whole of the year.
Zooplankton Primary consumers that feed on phytoplankton.
Zooxanthellae The tiny single-celled algae that live inside the tissues of the polyps.
Design Period The future period or number of years for which provision is made in designing the capacities of the various components of the water supply scheme is known as design period.
Intakes Intakes are the structure used for collecting the water from the surface source.
Screening Screens are generally provided in front of the pumps or intakes works, so as to exclude the floating and large sized impurities like leaves, branches of trees, aquatic vegetation, fish, ice etc.
Sedimentation Sedimentation is solid-liquid separation using gravity settling to remove suspended solid.
Sedimentation with coagulation (clarification) When chemicals or other substances are added to induce or fasten aggregation and settling of finely divided suspended matter and colloidal substances, the operation is called sedimentation with coagulation or clarification.
Discrete Settling This corresponds to the sedimentation of discrete particles in a suspension of low solids concentration. It is also known as Type-I settling.
Hindered settling This type of settling refers to rather dilute suspension of particles that coalesce or flocculate during sedimentation process. It is also known as Type-II settling.
Zone settling This type of settling refers to flocculent suspension of intermediate concentration. Inter particle force hold the particle together and mass of particle subside as whole. It is also known as Type-III settling.
Compression settling This refers to flocculent suspension of so high concentration that particles actually come in contact with each other resulting in the formation of a structure. It is also known as Type-IV settling.
Detention period Detention time or period is the theoretical time for which every water particle remains inside the settling water.
Flowing through period (td) It is the average time required for a batch of water to pass through the settling tank.
 Over flow rate The quantity of water passing per hour per unit plan area is known as over flow rate. It is also known as surface loading rate.
Weir loading rate It is ratio of flow rate divided by length of the outlet weir over which the water will flow.
Aeration It is one of the important unit operation of gas transfer in which water absorbs oxygen and dissolved gases like CO2, H2S gets removed.
Coagulants The certain chemical compounds added to water for the purpose of increasing size of suspended particle is called coagulants.
Floc Coagulants on thorough mixing forms a gelatinous precipitate called floc.
Flocculation The formation of precipitate which coagulates and forms a floc is called flocculation.
Filtration The process of passing water through beds of sand or other granular materials, is known as filtration.
Disinfection The process of killing the pathogenic bacteria from the water and making it safe to the user is called disinfection.
Sterilization When the aim is to kill all the microorganisms in water so as to make it sterile, the process is known as sterilization.
Disinfectants The chemicals or substances which are used for killing the bacteria are known as disinfectants.
Plain chlorination The term plain chlorination is used to indicate that only chlorine treatment has been given to the raw water, no other treatment has been given.
Pre-chlorination It is the application of chlorine to water before its treatment especially before filtration.
Post-chlorination Post chlorination or simply chlorination is the normal standard process of applying chlorine in the end, when all other treatment have been completed.
Double chlorination Double or multiple chlorination refers to the application of chlorine at two or more points in the purification process.
 Break point chlorination Break point chlorination is a dose of chlorine, beyond which any further addition of chlorine will appear as free residual chlorine.
Super chlorination Super chlorination is the application of chlorine beyond the stage of break point.
Dechlorination It is the process of removing excess chlorine from water before distribution to the consumers.
Water softening The removal or reduction of hardness from the water is known as water softening.
Water hardness Water is said to be hard when it contains relatively large amounts of bicarbonates, carbonates, sulphates and chlorides of calcium and magnesium dissolved in it.
Temporary hardness The hardness of water which can be easily removed by boiling or adding lime is known as temporary hardness.
Refuse Refuse is a general term used to indicate what is rejected or left out as worthless.
 Garbage It is used to indicate dry refuse. It includes decayed fruits, grass, leaves, waste papers, sweeping etc.
Rubbish Rubbish indicate sundry solid waste from offices, residences and other buildings.
Sewage It is used to indicate liquid waste from the community. It includes sullage, discharge from latrines, urinals, stables, industrial waste and storm water.
 Sullage It is used to indicate the wastewater from bathrooms, kitchens, washing places, wash basins etc.
Night soil It is a term used to indicate the human and animal excreta.
Sewerage The entire science of collecting, and carrying sewage by water carriage system through sewers, is known as sewerage.
Soil pipe It is the pipe carrying sewerage from urinals, water closets etc.
Waste pipe It is the pipe carrying discharges from bath rooms, kitchens, sinks etc.
Vent pipe The pipe installed for the purpose of ventilation is known as vent pipe.
Siphonage Water seal of traps may break due to siphonic action. This is known as siphonage.
Anti­-siphonage A pipe which is installed in the house drainage to preserve the water seal of traps is known as an anti siphonage.
Sanitary engineering It is the branch of public health engineering which deals with the prevention and maintenance of health of the individual and the community by preventing communicable diseases.
Catch basin or catch pits A catch basin is a structure in the form of a chamber which is provided along the sewer line to admit clear rain water free from silt, grit, debris etc. into the combined sewer.
Clean outs A clean out is an inclined pipe with its one end connected to the underground sewer line and the other and brought up to ground level, with a proper cover at the top.
Manholes A manhole is a masonry or R.C.C. Chamber, constructed at suitable intervals along the sewer line, for the purposes of inspections, texting, cleaning and removal of obstructions from the sewers line.
Inverted siphons Whenever a sewer line has to be dropped below the hydraulic gradient line for passing it beneath the obstruction such as roadway, railway, stream, railway, river, valley etc. will be known as inverted siphon or depressed sewer.
Unit operations Methods of treatment in which the application of physical forces predominate are known as unit operations.
Unit processes The methods of treatment in which chemical or biological activities are involved are known as unit processes.
Activated sludge The sludge which is made powerful by the process of aeration is known as activated sludge. It contains high content of oxygen and high number of aerobic bacteria.
Oxidation ponds or Stabilization ponds These are relatively shallow body of water contained in an earthen basin of controlled shape. They are designed and constructed to treat sewage and bio-degradable industrial wastewaters.
AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH  A photograph of a part of the earth’s surface taken by an aircraft supported camera.
ASSUMED ELEVATION An arbitrary value assigned to a bench mark to which other work is referenced. 
ASTRONOMIC Of or pertaining to astronomy.
ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION  The bending of the path of light rays as they pass through air of varying density.
AUTOMATIC LEVEL  A leveling instrument in which the line of sight is automatically maintained horizontal by means of a built-in compensator acting through the force of gravity. 
AXIS A reference line about which a body rotates. It can also be a reference line for coordinates.
AZIMUTH The horizontal direction reckoned clockwise from the meridian plane
BENCH MARK A relatively permanent object with a known elevation used as a reference for leveling.
BALANCING A SURVEY Distributing corrections through a traverse to eliminate the errors of closure according to some approved method so that the resulting survey figure will be geometrically and mathematically consistent.
BEARING  The horizontal angle which a line makes with the meridian of reference adjacent to the quadrant in which the line lies. Bearings are classified according to the meridian of reference, such as; astronomic, geodetic, magnetic, grid, assumed
CARTOGRAPHY  The art, science and technology of expressing graphically, by maps, charts, three-dimensional models and globes, the known physical features of the earth or any heavenly body, at any scale. In particular, cartography is concerned with all phases of map finishing, including the designing of format and symbolization; drafting, editing, and proofing of map content; and specifying requirements for reproduction.
CHAINMEN  Those who measure and record the distances in chaining.
Abney Level(CLINOMETER ) A hand held instrument used to measure vertical angles or the inclination of a slope. Also called an Abney Level.
COMPASS SURVEY A survey, which was executed using the magnetic compass.
CONTOUR An imaginary line on a map the connects points of the same elevation.
CONTOUR INTERVAL The spacing (elevation difference) between contours shown on a map.
COORDINATES  A set of numbers used in specifying the location of a point.
CORRECTION A value that is applied to a measurement to reduce the effect of errors.
CROSS HAIRS A set of wires or etched lines placed in a telescope used for sighting purposes (aiming)
DATUM  In ordinary survey usage, a defined reference for survey measurements
DECLINATION  An angle of difference.
DEFLECTION ANGLE  The angular difference from a straight line at an angle point in a traverse.
DIFFERENTIAL LEVELING The leveling process of determining the difference in elevation between two points.
DIRECTION The angle between a line and a chosen reference line. Commonly called an azimuth or bearing.
DIRECT MEASUREMENT  Determination of a distance by physical comparison or accumulation of distance using a device calibrated in some unit of measure.
DUMPY LEVEL A leveling instrument with its telescope permanently attached to the vertical spindle or leveling base as a single unit.
EDM  Electronic Distance Measurement. An instrument which times the transmission and reception of an electronic signal to and from a reflector and translates the signal wavelength and time to a distance. A  comparison of phase difference between transmitted and returned electromagnetic waves is analyzed
ELEVATION The distance measured along the direction of gravity above a surface of constant potential
ENGINEERING SURVEY  The process of collecting and recording information for planning, building and recording an engineering project.
ERROR OF CLOSURE- The deference between an actual measured location and its theoretical location determined mathematically.
FIELD NOTES  The official written record of the survey.
FOCAL LENGTH  A general term for the distance between the center, vertex, or rear node of a lens and the point at which the image of an infinitely distant object comes into critical focus. 
GEODETIC Referred to or based on principals of geodesy.
GEODESY The science concerned with the size and shape of the earth.
GEODETIC SURVEY A precise survey of considerable extent which takes into account the shape of the earth.
GEOGRAPHIC DATA  Information about objects found on the earth's surface, including their locations, shapes, and descriptions. Geographic data comes in three basic forms, spatial, tabular and image.
GEOID  The equipotential surface of the Earth's gravity field which approximates mean sea level.
GRADE The slope of the surface of the ground
GREENWICH MERIDIAN The Prime Meridian. The meridian which passes through the original site of the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England was adopted in 1884 by a conference of nations as the initial or zero of longitudes. From it other longitudes are reckoned east and west.
GREAT CIRCLE The line of intersection of the surface of a sphere with any plane which passes through the center of the sphere
HEIGHT OF INSTRUMENT The height of the instrument above the station point.
MEAN SEA LEVEL – The average height of the surface of the sea for all stages of the tide over a 19-year period, usually determined from hourly height readings.
OVERLAP  Lands surveyed in conflict. A common area included in separate surveys. That portion of area which one survey extends over and covers a part of a different survey as is shown by the evidence on the ground.
PHOTOGRAMMETRY  The science or art of obtaining reliable measurements by means of photographs.
PLUMB  The vertical direction. A line perpendicular to a horizontal plane.
PLUMB BOB The weight on a string to determine plumb.
PROFILE The graphical representation of the earth's surface preformed by leveling and by plotting.
PROLONGATION  The lengthening or extension of a line in the same direction.
RADIAN  The angle subtended at the center of a circle by an arc equal in length to a radius of the circle
RECIPROCAL LEVELING Leveling across a wide river (or other barrier) by establishing a turning point at each bank of the river from one side and taking a backsight on the other to determine the height of instrument on the opposite side
REDUCTION TO SEA LEVE The application of a correction to a measured horizontal length on the earth’s surface (at any elevation) to convert it in its projected or corresponding length at sea level.
SURVEYING The art and science of determining the relative position of points on, above, or beneath the surface by measurement of angles distances and elevations.
TRIBRACH  The three-arm base of a surveying instrument which carries the foot-screws used in leveling the instrument. 
ALIDADE It is a sighting instrument used in a plane tabling
ANALLACTIC LENS It is an additional third lens provided in an internal focousing telescope to make additive constant zero
ASTRONOMICAL TRIANGLE The pole P, zenith Z and any heavenly body S form a triangle known as Astronomical triangle
AXIS OF BUBBLE TUBE The axis of bubble tube is the line tangential to the longitudinal curve of the bubble tube at its centre
BACK BEARING Back bearing is a Whole Circle Bearing of line measured in a inverse direction of running traverse
BALANCING OF TRAVERSE It is a process followed for distribution of closing error to each legs of traverse according to length of leg
BOX SEXTANT Box-Sextant is an hand held instrument used for measuring horizontala and vertical angles
CELESTIAL SPHERE Celestial Sphere is a sphere of an infinite radius having earth as a cente. Stars are assumed to be embaded on it.
CHAIN SURVEYING It is a kind of linear measurement methods. Instrument used is a chain of different type and size.
OBSTACLES Constraints which are causing obstructions in intervisibility of triangulation station or making direct chaining impossible
CLOSING ERROR It is a distance by which traverse fails to close
COMPASS It is a device throgh which a magnetic bearing of a line can be measured. It consists a magnetic needle
CONTOUR MAPS It is a map having both dimensions vertical and horizontal are represented
CONTOURING Contouring is a method of locating contour after levelling
CORRECTION FOR CURVATURE It is correction made to observation due to difference of curved MSL and horizontal line of sight. It is always negative
CORRECTION FOR REFRACTION It is a correction made to observation. It is because line of sights gets refracted due to atmospheric influences and bends down with concavity toward the earth's surface. It is always positive
CROSS STAFF It is a device used for taking perpendicular offsets on chain line
CULMINATION When a heavenly body crosses the observer's meridian it is said to be in culmination
CURVES Curves are used in roads and railway tracks to change the direction of motion of moving vehicle
COMPOUND CURVE A compound curve is a curve made up of two or more simple circular arcs of different radius
REVERSE CURVE Reverse curve consists off two arcs of the same or different curvature but with their centres of curvature on opposite sides of the curve
TRANSITION CURVE Transition curves are used in road and railway curves to avoid the suddenness of change from a straight line to curve of finite length
MAGNETIC DECLINATION  Magnetic declination is the horizontal angle between the true meridian and magnetic meridianat a place
DIGITAL THEODOLITE It is a advancement in theodolite. Angles are displayed on screen and can be stored in a memory
DIP ANGLE The magnetic needle of compass takes direction of magnetic lines of earth at place, hence freely suspended needle will dip by small angle that angle is known as dip angle
DUMPY LEVEL It is a very solid and old type instrment
ELECTROMAGNETIC DISTANCE MEASUREMENT It is an instrument used for measuring distance by using electromagnetic waves and their properties
FOLDING STAFF It is generally 4m long staff, can be folded in two equal parts of 2m each using some mechanism
FORE BEARING It is a Whole Circle Bearing of a line measured in a direction of traverse run
GALE'S TRAVERSE TABLE Angles are corrected and traverse is balanced generally in a tabular form, most common form of table used is a Gale's Travers Table
GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM GIS is a computer based information management system which collects and spatially referenced data with other relevant attributes and enables us to manipulate analyse and display in suitable forms. Such data is used for planning and design purpose
HORIZONTAL AXIS It is the axis about which the telescope rotates when rotated in a vertical plane
HORIZONTAL CONTROL Horizontal Control means the establishment of points that can be used for referencing further work
INCLUDED ANGLES Included angle is the internal angle between two consecutive lines of traverse
REDUCED BEARING Reduced bearing are always measured from the north or south direction as acute angles. It is also known as Quadrantal Bearing
WHOLE CIRCLE BEARING Whole circle bearing is an angle to a line from North direction measured in a clockwise direction
LATITUDE It is a orthographic projection of line on North-South axis
DEPARTURE It is a orthographic projection of line on East-West axis
LEVELLING Levelling is a method of surveying used for determining elevations of points
LINE OF COLLIMATION The line of collimation is the line joining the intersection of the cross hairs to the optical centre of the object glass and its continuation. Thtis is also called line of sight
LONGITUDE Longitude of a point is the angle between standard meridian and the meridian through that point
MAGNETIC BEARING When a bearing of a line is referenced from true North-south direction at that place that bearing is termed as Magnetic bearing
METRIC CHAIN It is a chain available in 5m, 10m, 20m, 30m length with 20cm long links connected by oval shaped or circular rings
OMMITED MEASREMENT It is a finding or calculating missing measurement of traverse by suitable method or calculation ina closed traverse
PLANS A plan is representation of points on the surface of the earth on a horizontal plane by projecting them onto the plane
PLOTTING It is a process of transferring survey data on paper
PRISM SQUARE It is an instrument of checking right angleness of survey lines
REMOTE SENSING Remote Sensing is a means to collect data from remote location without being in physical contact with object
SEXTANT Sextant is an hand held instrument used for measuring horizontala and vertical angles
SIGNALS Signals are erected to define the exact position of station under observation
SOLID STAFF Solid staff is a metric staff 3m long made up of good quality of wood
SOUNDING Sounding is the determination of the depth of water at different points
STADIA CHARTS Stadia Charts are preplotted graphs used for determining distance from parameters like staff intercept, vertical angle and instrument constants
STADIA RODS Stadia rod is similar to a leveling staff but used for precise measurement as its marking are finely divided
SWINGING Swinging is the process of rotating the telescope about the vertical axis for the purpose of pointing the telescope in differenrent directions
TRANSISTING Transisting is the process of rotating the telescope about horizontal axis through 180 degree
SUPER ELEVATION Superelevation (or Cant or Banking ) is the increase in height of the outer edge of a curved path over the inner edge
SETTING OUT OF WORKS(STAKE OUT) broadly it is a process of transfering paper points on to the ground
TAPE It is an instrument used for linear measurement made of many material, have advantage of being light weight and providing greater precision
TARGET STAFF Target staff is generally 3m long having movable target with a vernier
THEODOLITE Theodolite is an instrument used for measuring angles more precisely than the compass
TOTAL STATION Total Station is combination of Digital Theodolite and EDM
THREE POINT PROBLEM It is a term used in plane table. It can be states as Given three visible stations and their plotted positions, to plot the station occupied by the plane table with the table corectly oriented with respect to three points already plotteds
TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYING Topographic surveys are conducted to determine the topography of the terrain
TRILATERATION Trilateration is a method of geodetic surveying wherein the three sides of triangles are measured
VERTICAL AXIS Vertical axis is perpendicular to line of sight and trunnio axis

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Developed By : Neel Parmar
150540107071
Mentored By : Prof. Nilesh M. Gambhava
Guided by : Prof. Arjun V. Bala
Computer Engineering Department
Explored By : ASWDC
Computer Engineering Department
Eulogized By : Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology, Rajkot, Gujarat - INDIA

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The department is proud to announce its "ASWDC - Application, Software & Website Devlopment Center". The center fulfills software & website requirements of the college.
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